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The book of trades; or, Familiar descriptions of the most useful trades, manufactures, and arts practised in England: and the manner in which the workmen perform their various employments.
(undated, inscribed 1829)

The bleacher.,   pp. 8 ff.


Page 8


8
         THE BLEACHER.
  BY means of water, the sun, and air, the
Bleacher clears those manufactures which
have vegetable substances for their raw ma-
terials, from all colouring matter, or acci-
dental stains. The machinery and utensils
used in Bleaching are various, according to
the articles which are bleached. Where
linen or heavy cotton cloths are whitened,
and the business becomes extensive, the
machinery is then both complicated and
expensive, consisting chiefly of a water-
wheel, sufficiently powerful for giving mo-
tion to the wash-stocks, dash-wheels,
squeezers, &c. &c. After washing by the
dash-wheel, the water is compressed from
the cloth by means of squeezers.  The
boilers used in bleaching are of the common
form, having a stop-cock at bottom for run-
ning off the waste lye.  They are com-
monly made of cast-iron, and contain from
300 to 600 gallons of water. The materials
for bleaching are chiefly pot and pearl ashes,
soda, soap, manganese, oxymuriate of pot-
ash, ditto of lime, muriatic acid, and sul-
phuric acid.  The common operations of
bleaching consist of steeping, boiling,
bucking, immersion in the oxymuriatic acid,
washing, scouring, &c.


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