Chapman, J.G. (John Gadsby), 1808-1889. / The American drawing-book: a manual for the amateur, and basis of study for the professional artist: especially adapted to the use of public and private schools, as well as home instruction.
(1870 [1873 printing])
Chapter IX. Etching and engraving, pp. -278
ETCHING. 24. GRAVERS. are employed of different forms, square or lozenge. For the .purpose of the etcher, the square tools are most to be recommended. 25. THE BURNISHER, if portions of an etching are found to be too dark, may be often very effectively employed in reducing the depth and width of lines, as well as in graduating or entirely erasing tints or lines if they are not too deep. In many ways this instrument may be used to advantage which practice and trial of its capacity for service will suggest. 26. THE SCRAPER is generally employed to cut off the burr made ~> by the turning up of the metal on the sides of lines which are but . ~ slightly bitt~n or only dry pointed. 2?. DRY-POINTED LINES are such as are made on the bare copper with the etching-needles, without being bitten in with the acid. They are often very effectively employed in retouching and finishing a work, especially in light and delicate parts. 28. Many employ etching-points of several degrees of sharpness, so as to produce at ono biting a greater variety of lines and texture, and by scoring the point lightly or deeply into the metal, which is much more readily done on copper than on steel. 34
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