Pain, William (1730?-1790?) / Pain's British Palladio, or, The builder's general assistant.
A Description of the Designs in Pain's British Palladio., pp. 1-7
A DESCRIPTION OF THE DESIGNS IN Plate VI. Basement plan of the design in plate V. A the kitchen; B the scullery; C the cold larder; D the butler's pantry; E the footman's room; F and G the housekeeper's apartment; H the water-closet; I the ale-cellar; K the wine-cellar; L small-beer cellar; M the steward's room; N the servants hall; O closet to ditto; P passage; Q section from A to B on the plan; R the area; S knife and shoe-house; T wood-house; U coal-house. PLATE VII. The one-pair of stairs divided into nine bed-rooms. A B water- closets; D the section from A to B on the plan; D well-hole for the back-stairs; E well-hole for the best-stairs; F landing of ditto; G passage to the bedrooms. The attic floor is divided in the same manner as the on-pair of stairs. The bridging-joist to lie about one foot apart in the clear between. PLATE VIII. Plan. Of the attic floors and roof. The references for plate VII. will answer for those in plate VIII. The plan of the rooms being the same. PLATE IX. The section of the flews, and manner of placing the timbers for the floors. The ends of the griders, joists, & c. area all shaded, and supposed to lie one foot clear of the flews, &c. The sections are marked with letters, as A, B,G,F, E, D, C. These letters have reference to the hearths on the plan of each wall that flews are in: the breast and flews D go from one-pair of stairs, and are built on stone cobbles, marked 1, 2, the trimmer-joist lying close to the stone, which is plain to inspection. The timbers the same as in the plan. Length and scantling of the timbers. The griders about 24 feet bearing; scantling 13 by 12; binding-joist 8 1/2 by 4 1/2; bridging-joist 5 by 3; ceiling-joist 3 1/2 by 2 1/2. I t will be requisite to truss the griders, and likewise to cut them cambering half an inch in 10 feet, and so on in proportion; if 20 feet long, an inch cambering; if 30, an inch and a half. Fig. A is the section of a grider, shewing the manner of trussing, with a king-piece in the middle to cut in two, an a pair of wedges driven to spring the grider. There must be iron plates at the end of the trusses, to keep them tight from eating into the wood: the truss to be of good dry oak, about 4 inches square, and the king-piece to be dry oak, 12 inches by 4. The scantling of the beams that the principal rafters are framed into, for the roof, in plate VIII. is 9 by 6 1/2; the length of the principal rafters 16 feet; the scantling, 9 at bottom, 7 at top, 6 1/2 thick; king-post 1 foot 4 inches by 6 1/2 thick; struts 6 1/2 by 4; purlines 8 by 6; wall-plates 9 by 6. The wall-plates, beams, and principal rafters, are all light: those parts of the wall that timbers do not cover are shaded. The perpendicular height of the roof is on-third of the span, or width, for slate; but if covered with plain tiles, give the height of the rafters C D (which is the middle between) a third and a square; for C E is square pitch, and C G is one third; so that C D is a mean between the two extremes. To find the length and backing of the hips and valleys, K L an K M, for the length, K L, take the perpendicular of the rafter G H, and set it at right angles with the base line of the hip I L, as I K; then draw the line K L, which is the length of the hip, and K M is the length of the valley. To find the backing of the hip, draw the line D E at right angles with the base line of the hip I L; then set the compasses at A, and draw a circle to touch the hip at B; and from the point C draw the lines C E and C D, which will give the backing of the hip. A is the plan of the hip, shewing the wood to be cut off, as 1, 2; and O shews the bevel of the hip at the foot. This method will give the length and backing of any hip, square or bevel; only observe to draw the line E A D at right angles with the base line of the hip J L, and it may be drawn across any part of the base line, suppose at F; then the nearest touch of the hip is at L; then draw the lines A G and A H, which will be the backing of the hip, as before. Note, the scantling of the small rafters for this roof is 5 by 3. N.B. The outside of this roof is equal pitch, and the rafters all of one length; but the inside is irregular, by reason of the sky-light not being in the center of the building, which may be proved by the lines drawn to represent the rafter on the plan of the roof. PLATE X. A design for a chimney-piece, drawn an inch and a half to a foot; the mouldings drawn half-size. A the profile of the pilaster and ground to receive the base and surbase; B the cornice, half-size; C the neck-mould under the frieze, half-size, enriched with clover-leaves; D the architrave-moulding, half-size, enriched with egg and tongue; E the neck-mould to the pilaster, half-size: F base-mould to ditto, half-size; the tablet enriched with laurel and Apollo's head. PLATE XI. A design for a chimney-piece. The mouldings are drawn half-size, with a tureen in the tablet. PLATE XII. A design for a town-house, with a rustic front. The height of the principal story, and the above part, stone ashler, and Ionic pilasters and entablature. A the dining-room; B the withdrawing-room; C the hall; D the common sitting-parlour; E the breakfast-room; F best stair-case; G back-stairs; H water-closet; I the saloon-room. PLATE XIII. Basement-plan and section of plate XII. A the kitchen; B steward's room; D the housekeeper's room; C cellars; G cold-larder; H stair-case; I and K water-closets; E servant's hall; F butler's pantry. PLATE XIV. One-pair of stairs plan and section, from front to back. The bow-room leaves at the one-pair of stairs. This floor is divided into eight bed-rooms and two closets, one a water closet, and the other to put utensils in for cleaning the rooms, &c. PLATE XV Plan of the attic floor, and roof; the rooms divided the same as the one-pair of stairs. The wall-plates and all the timbers are light; that part of the wall that is not covered with the timber is shaded. The sky-light over the back-stairs common pitch, the other a cone. The griders for the floors 14 by 12; the binding-joist 9 1/2 by 4 1/2; bridging-joist 5 1/2 by 3; the beams, that the principal rafters frame on, 9 inches by 6 1/2; the principal rafters 8 1/2 at bottom,, 6 1/2 at top, and 6 1/2 inches thick; purlines 8 by 6; small rafters 5 by 3; king-post 16 inches by 6 1/2; struts 6 by 4; wall-plate 12 by 6. The foregoing method for finding the length and backing of hips is general, in all cases, square or bevel. PLATE XVI. A design for a chimney-piece. The frieze is enriched with sestoons of flowers and Bacchanalians in the tablet; 3/4 columns, with antique caps, and springs of bay twisting round the columns; Bacchus in the blockings over the columns. PLATE XVII. A design for a chimney-piece, with open term pilasters, boys beads, and drops of flowers. The frieze is enriched with eagles heads and foliage; the tablet has two boys, the one presenting a dove to the other, signifying love reconciled, or love united: in the blockings over the pilasters are two Cupids, with palms of bay round them; the mouldings half-size for cornices, &c.
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