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Bishop, J. Leander (John Leander), 1820-1868 / A history of American manufactures from 1608 to 1860 : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the Constitution : and comprising annals of the industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of the important inventions, tariffs, and the results of each decennial census
Volume 3 (1868)

The great iron works of the United States,   pp. 475-495

Page 493

The Works furnish employment to about seventy-five men, nearly all
of whom own their dwellings, and some occupy houses in which their
ancestors for five generations lived. There are moulders employed here
whose great grandfathers followed the same occupation in the same
place and in this respect the works present an anomaly entirely excep-
tional in the manufacturing experience of this country.
Mr. Ellis is also interested in Iron Works and Collieries in other
sections of the country. He is Treasurer and one of the Directors of
the " Kentucky Improvement Company," an association of capitalists
of New York and Boston, who own a tract of nearly thirty thousand
acres of land in Greenup county, Kentucky, abounding in Iron ore and
Cannel Coal. There are two Blast Furnaces on this estate, one of
them in operation, capable of making seven thousand tons of the best
Charcoal pig iron annually. All the material, needful to the reduction
of the ores, and repair of Furnaces, is supplied from the neighborhood
of the Works in the greatest abundance. A solid block of upwards of
five feet of Cannel Coal underlies the greater part of these lands,
above water level, and containing in the aggregate a quantity, esti-
mated to be equal to one hundred millions of tons. A railroad is now
completed from the mines to the Ohio river, and as the facilities for
mining at a minimum cost are remarkable, the drift being nearly hori-
zontal and above water line, this Company will soon supply not only
the markets of Cincinnati and its vicinity, but those of New Orleans
and even the Atlantic coast with this valuable mineral, the finest ever
discovered for use in grates, besides being an oil producing Coal.
Mr. Ellis is also Treasurer and Manager of the Fisher Iron Com-
pany on Lake Champlain, which produces a remarkably pure magnetic
ore, that is consumed largely by the Furnaces along the Hudson river,
and by forges for making Charcoal blooms.
The Reading Iron Works, Reading, Pa.,
Owned by SEYFERT, MOMANUS & Co., incorporated by special act of
the Legislature, are among the most extensive and important in the
United States.  They comprise a Rolling Mill, Tube Mills, Furnace,
Forges, Foundry and Machine Shop, and Sheet Mill, and the opera-
tions are so comprehensive that they may be said to embrace almost
every branch of the general Iron Manufacture. When in full opera-
tion, they give employment to about two thousand men.
The ROLLING MILL which formed the nucleus of these works, was
built in 1836, and went into operation in 1837. It comprised a tner-
chant mill, Puddle-ball mill, and a small guide mill, six puddling fur.
4 9 '

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