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Bishop, J. Leander (John Leander), 1820-1868 / A history of American manufactures from 1608 to 1860 : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the Constitution : and comprising annals of the industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of the important inventions, tariffs, and the results of each decennial census
Volume 3 (1868)

The great iron works of the United States,   pp. 475-495


Page 476

GREAT IRON WORKS IN THE UNITED STATES.
having been built in 1840, the second in 1842, the third in 1846, and
the remaining two in 1850. The first three are forty-seven feet high,
but of different bosh widths-namely, eleven, thirteen, and sixteen feet.
The last two are eighteen feet wide by fifty-five feet high, and are
blown by four engines. The principal one, built by I. P. Morris &
Co., has a steam cylinder fifty-eight inches in diameter, and a blowing
cylinder ninety-three inches, both ten feet stroke of piston. The beam
of this engine works on a column of cast-iron thirty feet high, and the
whole is set upon a heavy cast-iron bed plate. In 1862 the five fur-
naces made nearly fifty thousand tons of anthracite iron. The Super-
intendent or manager of these Works is Mr. JOHN THOMAS, a son of
the gentleman who is accredited with having been the first who intro-
duced successfully the use of anthracite coal in the manufacture of iron.
This was accomplished in Wales, by David Thomas, in 1837 ; and in
June, 1839, he superintended the blowing in the Pioneer Anthracite
Furnace in Pottsville, the first of the kind in America. When we
reflect that now sixty per cent. of all the iron made in the United
States is anthracite, and look upon the magnificent furnates that
abound in the Lehigh and Schuylkill vallies, the name of DAVID
THOMAS stands forth as one of America's benefactors.
The Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company,
have at Scranton, in Luzerne County, very large and important works
for manufacturing Iron.
There are four Blast furnaces, built in 1848, 1852, and 1854; Nos. I
and 2 being eighteen feet each in the bosh; No. 3, nineteen feet; and
No. 4, twenty feet; all fifty feet high. They are blown by four low-
pressure beam engines; Nos. 1 and 2 having steam cylinders fifty-four
inches in diameter, and blowing cylinders eighty-six inches in diame-
ter; and Nos. 3 and 4, steam cylinders fifty-eight inches in diameter,
aid blowing cylinders ninety-three inches in diameter-all ten feet
stroke-built by I. P. Morris & Co., of Philadelphia-the steam being
generated entirely by waste heat.
Two of the furnaces, Nos. 3 and 4, are now in blast, the former of
which made, in ten months of 1862, twelve thousand six hundred and
seventeen tons; and the latter made, in 1863, fourteen thousand three
hundred and seventy-seven tons; and in twenty and a half months of
the present -blast, twenty-five thousand tons. No. 3 furnace made in
one week, in February, 1862, three hundred and seventy-five and a
half tons pig metal, the largest week's produce ever made by any An-
thracite furnace in this country.
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