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Bishop, J. Leander (John Leander), 1820-1868 / A history of American manufactures from 1608 to 1860 : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the Constitution : and comprising annals of the industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of the important inventions, tariffs, and the results of each decennial census
Volume 3 (1868)

The great iron works of the United States,   pp. 475-495

Page 475

In proceeding to give some further account of the Great Iron Works
of the United States than has already been given, attention is naturally
attracted, first, to Pennsylvania, which produced, in 1866, sixty per
cent. of all the Pig Iron made, during that year, in the United States.
The total product of the State, as given in reliable statistics, was
seven hundred and seventy-two thousand four hundred and seventy-
nine tons, valued at thirty-five millions of dollars ; and, of this amount,
four hundred and fifty thousand tons were made east of the Alleghe-
nies, of which three fourths was Anthracite Iron, made in the Lehigh
and Schuylkill valleys. In this district, there are Iron Works which
travellers and competent judges have declared to be unsurpassed by
any similar works in England and Wales. Probably the largest and
most productive Furnaces in the United States are those of
The Thomas Iron Company,
Situated at Ilockendauqua, Lehigh county, four miles above Allentown.
They were built in 1855, and are managed by Samuel Thomas, the son
of David Thomas, who first successfully introduced the manufacture of
iron by means of anthracite coal. The original furnaces were built to-
gether, and alike, eighteen feet across the bosh and sixty feet high, and
are blown at the extraordinary pressure of eight and a half pounds to
the square inch, by two large engines constructed at the West Point
Iron Foundry, the steam cylinders being fifty-six inches in diameter,
and the blowing cylinders ninety inches diameter. In 1862 and 1863
these twin stacks made twenty-seven thousand tons of iron, a large-r
production than was ever before attained. Recently two additional
furnaces were erected, eighteen by fifty-five feet, which are blown
by two very large beam engines constructed by I. P. Morris & Co., of
Philadelphia, the steam cylinders being sixty-six inches in diameter,
and the bloviing cylinders one hundred and eight inches, and ten feet
stroke. The materials are conveyed to the top of the stacks by atmos-
pheric pressure-and in all their appointments they may be said to be
the model furnaces of America.
Next to these, the most productive furnaces are those of
The Lehigh Crane Company,
Situated about a mile below the Thomas Works, on the eastern side
of the Lehigh river. These consist of five furnaces, the first stack

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