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Bishop, J. Leander (John Leander), 1820-1868 / A history of American manufactures from 1608 to 1860 : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the Constitution : and comprising annals of the industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of the important inventions, tariffs, and the results of each decennial census
Volume 3 (1868)

Manufactures of Lynn,   pp. 318-319

Manufactures of Taunton,   pp. 319-331

Page 319

and half-sizes, which are put up with all the necessary trimmings in
"sets" of 60 pairs for the coarser kinds, and 24 pairs for the finer quali-
ties. These sets are numbered, recorded, and packed in boxes to be
sent to the operatives or workmen to whom they are charged. The
cutting out of the soles is generally done by machinery. A knife with
a curvilinear edge i-s set in a frame and worked with a treadle, after the
manner of a lathe. By a lateral motion in the machine it can be
adapted to the cutting of any requisite width of sole, and being once
fixed to a given width the process of cutting is very rapid, and material
is saved by the leather being cut at right angles to the surface instead
of diagonally as by the ordinary knife. The stitching of the upper
leather is now generally done by sewing machines, the binding by fe-
males, and the other parts by males, who are styled " workmen" or
"jours."  These operatives do not belong to Lynn exclusively, but
many of them reside in other parts of the State, and in Maine, New
Hampshire, and Vermont.
For the convenience of the operatives residing in distant localities,
the materials in their prepared state are collected from the manufac-
turers by expressmen or carriers. These deliver them to the workmen
for whom they are intended, and on receiving the work made up deliver
that to the manufacturer, and then receive the payment due to the former
for their labor. The remuneration of these carriers is generally a small
per centage on the amount.
TAUNTON, situated on the Taunton River at its junction with Mill
River, 35 miles south from Boston, is the seat of a number of very impor-
tant manufactories. It has been said that Iron Works were established
here as early as 1652,' and the various manufactures of iron, as Tacks,
Screws, Stoves, Locomotives and Machinery, continue to be among the
prominent branches of its industry. In 1860 the value of the tacks,
brads, and horse-shoe nails made by the Taunton Tack Company, A.
Field & Sons, and Lovett Morse, amounted to $370,000. The Bay State
Company produced Screws to the amount of $150,000, having a capital
invested of $175,000, and employed 220 hands. Stove and other cast-
ings to the amount of $340,000 were made by Eddy & Co., the Foundry
and Machine Co., Lemuel M. Leonard, Bartlett & Potter, and the
Taunton Iron Works Co., employing in all a capital of $190,000, and
(1) See Vol. 1., page 479.

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