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Bishop, J. Leander (John Leander), 1820-1868 / A history of American manufactures from 1608 to 1860 : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the Constitution : and comprising annals of the industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of the important inventions, tariffs, and the results of each decennial census
Volume 3 (1868)

Manufactures of Lawrence,   pp. 316-318

Page 317

The Pemberton Company's Mills are built on the site of the old Pem-
3erton Mills, which were destroyed in January, 1860, while in full ope-
ration, by the falling of the main building and subsequent fire, which
involved the death of a large number of operatives.        The new mills
have been constructed with the most careful regard to architectural
strength, and probably no factories in the country excel them in this
particular.   The present Company has a capital of $650,000, runs
30,000 spindles and 600 looms.
The " Everett Mills," incorporated in 1858, occupy the buildings for-
merly used as the Lawrence Machine Shop, which are 400 feet long and
four stories high.  This Company has a capital of $800,000.
The " Lawrence Duck Mill" was incorporated in 1853, with a capital
of $300,000, and employs about 250 operatives.
Among the new enterprises of Lawrence we may mention the "Fibrilia
Manufacturing Company," and the " Lawrence Woolen Company," which
has been incorporated and is about going into operation.      The Fibrilia
Company is making Printed Carpetings, Rugs and Crumb Cloths, from
prepared flax and wool, of which they have sold many thousands of
Besides these companies, Lawrence has three Paper Mills, those of
William   Russell & Son, S. S. Crocker, and Wilder & Co.; two manu-
factories of Leather Belting (Edward Page & Co. and E. W. Colcord,
proprietors); two Iron Foundries, the " Merrimack Iron Foundry,"
(Bennett & Josselyn, proprietors), and Edmund Davis & Son ; and four
Machine Shops, those of Albert Blood, J. C. Iloadly & Co., Webster,
Dustin & Co., and Henry Arnold.       Patent Fliers for cotton machinery
(1) Fibrilia is a new article for textile fabrics to be used as a substitute for cotton and
wool, and susceptible of being spun or woven on cotton and woolen machinery. The
principal plant used for fibrilizing is Flax, and the country is largely indebted to
Stephen M. Allen, of Boston, for his persevering experiments in rendering this material
available as a substitute for Cotton. Mr. Allen began his experiments in cottonizing flax
in 1851, but the first Mill provided with machinery for the purpose was one established
by him in association with George W. Brown and J. C. Butterworth in 1858, at East
Greenwich, Rhode Island. In the succeeding year lie fitted up a small mill at Watertown,
Massachusetts, where it was fully demonstrated that Flax could be fibrilized for use as a
substitute for cotton in the manufacture of Calicoes and Sheetings, by a mixture of half
cotton and half flax. Since then great improvements have been made in the machinery
and processes, and several factories have been established for the manufacture of various
articles from this material. Besides the company at Lawrence, the American Felting Co.
and the Mystic Mills, at Winchester, Mass., make Carpetings, etc. At Natick, Mass., are
the "Flax Leather Company," manufacturing Fibrilia Leather, tons of which are now
used for stiffening heels of boots and shoes, inside soles, etc., and the " Berkley Com-
pany," which is manufacturing Carpet Linings extensively. At Lockport are companies
engaged in manufacturing Flax-Cotton Twine, etc., and in Canada, and at Pittsburg, Pa
here are mills for preparing the fibre.
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