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Bishop, J. Leander (John Leander), 1820-1868 / A history of American manufactures from 1608 to 1860 : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the Constitution ; and comprising annals of the industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of the important inventions, tariffs, and the results of each decennial census
Volume 3 (1868)

Manufactures of Paterson,   pp. 222-236

Page 234

The Dolphin Manufacturing Company
Is the style of a Company in Paterson, organized under the manufac-
turing law of Now Jersey, which carries on the manufacture of coarse
gootIs from Flax, Ilemp or Jute, as the trade may demand. It was
originally known as the American Ilemp Company, and was established
in 1844 for the manufacture of hemp into sail canvas and other articles
for which this fibre was believed to be suited. The advance in the
price of American hemp, from $80 to $300 per ton, combined with a
preference for cotton duck, caused this Company to add Flax and Jute
to their original articles of manufacture. They are extensive producers
of Jute-or, as it is called, Hemp Carpeting-of Bagging for Hops and
for Sea Island Cotton, of Burlaps and Tailors' Canvas ; also of Yarns
for filling for Venetian and Tapestry Woolen Carpetings, and of Twines
for Wool. Before 1850 the consumption of jute carpeting was trifling.
At that date their superintendent introduced the style of mottled
grounds, by doubling and twisting two threads of different colors into
one thread. This at once gave a great impetus to the business both in
America and in Scotland, where large factories have since been built
for the production of this article exclusively. This Company was the
first to introduce canvas for tailors' linings made from jute entirely
-formerly a mixture of flax and tow was invariably used; and also that
description of burlaps for wrappers and bags known as "heavy tens"
(ten shillings). All these articles have since become staples, and the
consumption is very large.
This establishment is owned by nearly the same proprietors who
built it in 1844. The Superintendent then and now is J. B. MELDRUM,
a native of Scotland. This gentleman claims to be the pioneer in jute
manufacturing, having spun, in 1832, in Dundee, Scotland, the first
yarns made from that article. The consumption of jute in Dundee
alone has since attained the remarkable extent of sixty to seventy
thousand tons annually.
The Dolphin Company's Mill is situated on the first raceway or level
at Passaic Falls, Paterson. They use a turbine wheel of six feet diam-
eter, drawing six square feet of water under head and fall of twenty-
two feet, with a power equal to one hundred and eighty horses. The
mill building is substantially constructed of stone with slate roof, two
hundred and thirty feet long by forty-eight feet wide, two stories and
attic ; contains about twelve hundred spindles and fifty looms, all of
the heaiiest description, and produces about one hundred thousand
pounds of yarns monthly, using six hundred tons of raw material annu-
ally. The market for their manufactures is found chiefly in New York,
where they have an office and salesroom. The capital of the Company
is $250,000.

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