The book of trades; or, Familiar descriptions of the most useful trades, manufactures, and arts practised in England : and the manner in which the workmen perform their various employments.
(undated, inscribed 1829)
The bleacher., pp. 8 ff.
8 THE BLEACHER. BY means of water, the sun, and air, the Bleacher clears those manufactures which have vegetable substances for their raw ma- terials, from all colouring matter, or acci- dental stains. The machinery and utensils used in Bleaching are various, according to the articles which are bleached. Where linen or heavy cotton cloths are whitened, and the business becomes extensive, the machinery is then both complicated and expensive, consisting chiefly of a water- wheel, sufficiently powerful for giving mo- tion to the wash-stocks, dash-wheels, squeezers, &c. &c. After washing by the dash-wheel, the water is compressed from the cloth by means of squeezers. The boilers used in bleaching are of the common form, having a stop-cock at bottom for run- ning off the waste lye. They are com- monly made of cast-iron, and contain from 300 to 600 gallons of water. The materials for bleaching are chiefly pot and pearl ashes, soda, soap, manganese, oxymuriate of pot- ash, ditto of lime, muriatic acid, and sul- phuric acid. The common operations of bleaching consist of steeping, boiling, bucking, immersion in the oxymuriatic acid, washing, scouring, &c.
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