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Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / The birds of North America
(1903)

Plate CIV. Gould's, or Samuel's song sparrow. (Melospiza melodia, var. gouldii.),   pp. 153-156


Page 155


FLYCATCHER-CA rnTINALS-13tUNTINGS-SPARROWS-BLACK BIRD-LA
care as to neatness or strength, and so very slight is the structure
that you may often count the eggs in the nest from below.
Little, or Little Western Flycatcher. (Emfidonax tra ilii, var. pusil-
lus.)
Fig. 2!.
From the high, central plains to the Pacific, thence southward
into Mexico, is the habitat of this little Flycatcher. It is the west-
ern variety of Traill's Flycatcher (Epnitdonax traillit), repre-
sented on Plate L, fig. 4, and described on page 74, its notes and
its manners being the same.
Cape Cardinal; Fiery Redbird. (Cardina/is virginianus, var. igweus.)
Fig. 22.
The habits and characteristics of this variety, which is met with
at Cape St. Lucas, and in the Colorado Valley, are the same as
those of the common Redbird, or Cardinal Grosbeak (Cardinalis
virginianus), Plate XXVIII, figs. 3 and 4, page 31.
Texas Cardinal. (Pyrrhuloxia sinuata.)
Fig. 23.
This species was originally described as a Mexican bird by
Prince Charles Lucien Bonaparte, published in the proceedings of
the Zoological Society of London. Since then, it has been dis-
covered to be an inhabitant of the southern central portions of our
country; its range extending northerly to within the limits of the
United States. On the Rio Grande, it is said to be a resident
most of the year. Its habits and manners are similar to our com-
mon Cardinal Grosbeak, or Redbird (Cardinalis virginianus),
represented on Plate XXVIII, figs. 3 and 4, page 3T.
Western Nonpareil, or Varied Bunting. (Cyanospiza versicolor.)
Fig. 24.
This beautiful bird is confined almost exclusively to Mexico.
In which country it was met with, in the State of New Leon, by
Lieutenant Couch. It is said to be common at Cape St. Lucas,
where it breeds, and at which place Mir. Xantus found a nest and
three eggs, on a myrtle hanging down from very high, perpen-
dicular bluffs, off the Tragoles.
Brewer's Sparrow. (Spizella pallida, var. breweri.)
Fig. 25.
Mexico, and the southwestern border of the United States, is
the habitat of this little Sparrow. According to Mr. Ridgeway, it
is found abundant in all fertile portions, almost exclusively an in-
habitant of open situations, such as fields or bushy plains, among
the artemesia especially where it is most numerous, frequenting
alike the valleys and the mountains. Its song, he says, for spright-
liness and vivacity, is not excelled by any other of the North
American Fringillidae, being inferior only to that of the Ckondestes
gummaca in power and richness, and even excelling it in variety
and compass. Its song, while possessing all the plaintiveness of
tone so characteristic of the eastern Field Sparrow, unites to this
quality a vivacity and variety fully equaling that of the finest
Canary. The nest, which he found early in June, was built in
sage-bushes about three feet from the ground.
Western Slate-colored Sparrow. Passerella townsendi, va
Fig. 26.
The Rocky Mountain regions of the United States is the habitat
of this variety or geographical race of Townsend's Sparrow (Pass-
erella townsendii), Plate XCIV, fig. IO, page 14I.
Ridgeway's Sparrow. (Zonotrichia leucophrys, var. intermedia.)
Fig. 27.
This variety was first met with by Mr. Ridgeway at the Summit
Meadows, near the summit of Donner Lake Pass of the Sierra
Nevada, at an altitude of about seven thousand feet, where he
found it an abundant and characteristic bird. The males were in
full song in all parts of the meadow, and were nesting in such
numbers that on the evening of July 9, on halting for the night,
in a hurried search, no less than twenty-seven of their eggs were
obtained within about fifteen minutes. In every instance the nests
were imbedded under a species of dwarf-willow, with which the
ground was covered. The birds were extremely unsuspicious, the
male often sitting on a bush within a few feet of the collector, and
chanting merrily as the eggs were being blown. He adds that
this species is only a winter visitant of the lower country, but is
there universally distributed and always found in bushy localities.
Clay Colored Sparrow, or Bunting; Shattuck Bunting. (Spizella pal-
lida.)
Fig. 28.
According to Audubon: " This handsome little species is found
quite abundant throughout the country bordering on the Upper
Missouri. It inhabits, with particular partiality, the valleys found
here and there along the numerous ravines running from the in-
terior. Its usual demeanor resembles much that of the Chipping
Bunting (Emberiza socialis), of Wilson, and, like it, it spends
much of its time in singing its monotonous ditties, while its mate
is engaged in the pleasing task of incubation. When approached,
it will dive and conceal itself either amid the low bushes around,
or will seek a large cluster of wild roses, so abundant in that sec-
tion of country, and the fragrance of which will reach the olfactory
nerve of the traveler or gunner for many paces.
'4 The nest of the Shattuck Bunting is usually placed on a small
horizontal branch, seven or eight feet from the ground; and I be-
lieve it is occasionally placed in the broken and hollow branches
of trees. The eggs, four or five in number, are blue, spotted with
reddish brown toward the large end, and placed in a nest so
slightly formed of slender grasses circularly lined with horse or
cattle hair, so as to resemble as much as possible the nest of the
species to which it is allied."
Crimson, or Red-shouldered Black-bird. (Agelaius phmeniceus, var.gw-
bernator.)
Fig. 29.
A Pacific Coast variety of our common Red-winged Black-bird
(Agelaius phacniceus), Plate XXXIII, figs. 2 and 3, page 44.
Their habits, notes, and characteristics are similar.
Western Meadow, or Old Field Lark. (Sturnella magna, var. neglecta.)
Fig. 3o.
This variety was first made known by Messrs. Lewis and Clark,
at the time of their expedition to the Rocky Mountains. In matl


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