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Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / The birds of North America
(1903)

[Plate CIII. Red-vented thrasher; Crissal thrush; Henry's thrush. (Harporhynchus crissalis.) cont.],   pp. 151-152


Page 152


SONG-SPARROW-CHAT-TITMICE-VIREOS-WRENS-THRASHERS.
Oregon, or Gray Song-Sparrow. (Melospiza melodia, var. gultaa.)
Fig. 12.
This variety is an inhabitant of the Pacific Coast, United States,
and British Columbia. Dr. Cooper characterizes this species as
the most northern and mountain-frequenting representative of the
Song Sparrows, being a resident of the higher Sierra Nevada, and
on the borders of the evergreen forests toward the Columbia, and
thence northward, where it is the only species of this genus, and
where it is common down to the level of the sea. Their habits
and song are similar to the common Song Sparrow of the East.
Western, or Long-tailed Chat. (Icteria virens, var. longicauda.)
Fig. 13.
This variety of the common Yellow-breasted Chat, Plate LXIV,
fig. 9, page Io, has an exclusively western distribution, and has
been found from Mexico and Cape St. Lucas to Oregon, on the
Pacific Coast, and as far east as the Upper Missouri. The habits
and notes of these birds are alike.
Western Titmouse, or Chickadee. (Parus atricapillus, var. occidenta-
Zis.)
Fig. 14
The Pacific Coast variety of the common Titmouse, or Black-
capped Chicadee, Plate XXXII, fig. 4, page 42. This little bird
is mostly found frequenting low thickets and trees in Oregon and
Washington Territory. During winter it is found common near
the Columbia river in the northern part of California. Its food
consists of seeds and insects, it is also fond of fresh meat, fat, and
crumbs of bread.
Blaok-orested, Blaok-tufted, or Texas Titmouse. (Lophopihanes atri-
cristatus.)
Fig. iS.
The valley of the Rio Grande, thence south into San Antonio,
Texas, is the residence of this species. It was first met with by
Mr. Audubon, in Texas. In its habits and general appearance it
is similar to the common Crested or Tufted Titmouse (Lophopha-
nes bicolor), Plate XXXIII, fig. 2, page 30.
Blaok-headed or Blaok-oapped Vireo. ( Vireo atricapillus.)
Fig. 16.
This very rare species has Southwestern Texas, and Mazatlan,
Mexico, as its place of habitation. Very little is known regarding
its habits. It was first discovered, by Dr. Woodhouse, May 26,
3851, in Western Texas, on the Rio San Pedro, within ten miles
of its source. He found it among some cedars, and was attracted
by its very singular notes. It was in continued motion, like a
Wood Warbler, and was by him first supposed to be one of those
birds.
Hutton's Vireo. (Vireo huttoni.)
Fig. 17.
This species was first described by Mr. Cassin, in 1851, from a
specimen obtained in Monterey, California; in which State, and
in the Valley of Gila, and in the northern and eastern portions of
Mexico, it has been found. Dr. Cooper states that it resembles
the Ruby-crowned Wren very closely in appearance and habits.
Its song consists of a few short and quaint notes.
White-bellied Wren. (Thryothorus bewickii, var. leucogaster.)
Fig. i8.
This bird is the Southwestern United States and Mexican variety
of our eastern species known as Bewick's Wren, Plate LXXI,
fig. 6, page 102.
Long-billed Thrush; Texas Thrasher. (Harfiorhynchus rufus, var. lon-
girostris.)
Fig. ,9.
A variety that represents the Brown Thrush (Harporhynchus
rufus, Plate LXXII, fig. 8, page io9, in Eastern Mexico, north
to the Rio Grande, Texas.
Leoonte's Thrush, or Thrasher. (Harporhynchus redivivus, var. le-
contei.)
Fig. 20.
This is a comparatively new species, it was met by Dr. Leconte,
near Fort Yuma. Dr. Cooper found it common about the Mojave
river, near which place Dr. Coues obtained a specimen in 1865.
He found it on a dry plain covered with mosquits and cactus. It
was very shy and restless, fluttering hurriedly from one cactus to
another, until he at last shot it when it seemed to fancy itself hid-
den among the thick ponds of a large yueca. Its large, stout feet
admirably adapt it for its particularly terrestrial life, and it appar-
ently spends much of its life upon the ground, where it runs rap-
idly and easily. Its flight he describes as swift but desultory, and
accompanied by a constant flirting of the tail.
Alaska Wren. (Anorthura troglodytes, var. alascensis.)
Fig. at.
Very little is known of this new variety. Mr. Dall obtained it
on Amaknak Island. He found it abundant all the year round on
St.George's Island, and that it bred in May, building a nest of
moss in the crevices of the rocks, and, according to the Aleuts,
lay six eggs.
Parkman's House Wren; Western Wood Wren.
var. farkmani.)
(Troglodites adon,
Fig. 22.
This bird was first obtained by Mr. Townsend, on the Columbia
River, and described by Audubon in 1839. It is met with on the
plains from the Missouri to the Pacific. Its habits and character-
istics are the same as the common Eastern House Wren. Plate
LVI, fig.- 7, page 83.
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