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Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / The birds of North America
(1903)

Plate CI. Texas orchard oriole. (Icterus spurius, var. affinis.),   pp. 147-148


Page 148


148  WOODPECKERS-FL YCATCHER-TITM ICE-FIN CH ES-ORIOLE-SPARROWS, ETC.
Texan Woodpecker. Arizona Woodpecker.   Ladder-backed Wood-
pecker. Texan Sapsucker. (Picus scalaris.)
Fig. 2.
This southwestern species is met with from the Rocky Mountains
and its slopes, west to San Bernadino Mountains of California.
Dr. Cooper says they are abundant in the Colorado valley, and
sometimes seen in the bushes covering the neighboring mountains.
Dr. Woodhouse says, during his stay in San Antonio, Texas,
and its vicinity, he became quite familiar with it. It was to be
seen at all times, flying from tree to tree, and lighting on the trunk
of the mesquites (algarobia), closely searching for its insect-food.
In its habits and notes, he states, it much resembles the common
Hairy Woodpecker. See page i8.
Buff-breasted Flycatcher, or Least Flycatcher.
frons, var. pallesceus.)
(Mitrephorus fulvi-
Fig. 3.
This species, which is comparatively new to our fauna, was taken
by Dr. Coues at Fort Whipple, at which place it is a rare summer
visitor.
Gray-tufted Titmouse. California Titmouse.  Plain, or Plain-crested
Titmouse. (Lophopfhanes inornatus.)
Fig. 4
This Pacific coast species was first described by Dr. Gamble in
his Birds of California. Dr. Woodhouse met with it in the San
Francisco mountains, near the little Colorado river, New Mexico,
at which place he found it very abundant. Dr. Gamble first no-
ticed this species near Monterey, where he found it very common,
frequenting tall bushes in small flocks, searching branches of low
trees, uttering weak and slender cries, resembling tsee-day-day.
According to Dr. Cooper, they seem to prefer the evergreen oak
groves toward the middle of the State, but are not found in the
higher Sierra Nevada. They are residents throughout tl e year
in the evergreen oaks near San Francisco. They are seen in
small parties, scattered about the trees, and calling to each other
with a variety of sweet and loud notes, some of which are said to
equal those of our best singers. It also has certain powers of im-
itation like the eastern crested species, and the same cry of peto-
peto.
House Finch, or Linnet.  Burion.  Crimson-fronted Finch.  Adobe
Finch. (Carpodacusfrontalis.)
Fig. 5.
This is a very abundant species in the towns and gardens of
New Mexico, Arizona, and California, where, according to Dr.
Coues, it is as familiar as the European Sparrow has become in
many of our large eastern cities. Dr. Woodhouse says, that his
attention was first called to this interesting little songster while at
Santa Fe. It was there known to the American residents as the
"Adobe Finch." By the Mexicans they were called Buriones.
He found them exceedingly tame, building about the dwellings,
churches, and other buildings, in every nook and corner, and even
entering the houses to pick up crumbs. They are never disturbed
by the inhabitants. He adds, that at the first dawn of the morning
they commence a very sweet and clear warble, which he was quite
unable to do justice to by any verbal description.
Hooded Oriole. (Icterus cucullatus.)
Fig. 6
This species extends its migrations from Mexico into Texas, at
the Rio Grande, and into Southern California and Arizona. On
the Rio Grande, where it rears its young, it was found quite com-
mon by Captain McCown. When met with in the woods, and far
away from the abodes of men, it seemed shy and disposed to con-
ceal itself. Yet a pair of these birds were his constant visitors,
morning and evening. They came to the vicinity of his quar-
ters, an unfinished building at Ringgold Barracks, and at last be-
came so tame and familiar that they would pass from some ebony
trees, that stood near by, to the porch, clinging to the shingles and
rafters, frequently in an inverted position, prying into the holes and
crevices, apparently in search of spiders and such insects as could
be found there. From this occupation they would occasionally
desist to watch his movements. He never could induce them to
partake of the food he offered them. Lieutenant Couch found
their nests generally on or under the tops of the palm known as
the Spanish bayonet.
Black-ohinned Sparrow. (Sfiizella atrig~ularis.)
Fig. 7.
But little is known of this Mexican species, that is only occa-
sionally found within the limits and along the borders of the United
States. It was met with by Dr. Coues in the neighborhood of
Fort Whipple, Arizona. It arrives there in April, and departs in
small flocks in October. He says that in the spring it has a very
sweet and melodious song, far surpassing in power and melody the
notes of any other of this genus he has ever seen.
Calliope Hummingbird. (Stellula calliope.)
Fig. 8.
This interesting Hummingbird is comparatively new to our North
American fauna. It was first discovered by Signor Floresi. Air.
J. K. Lord, one of the British Commissioners on the Northwest
Boundary Survey, was the first who brought it to the attention of
our ornithologists. It is met with in the mountains of Washington,
Oregon, California, to Northern Mexico. Mr. Lord says, around
the blossoms of the brilliant pink Ribes, or flowering currant, he
found congregated quite a number of Hummingbirds. The bushes
seemed to him to literally gleam with their flashing colors, among
them the present species, one of the smallest of Hummingbirds,
and in life conspicuous for a frill of minute pinnated feathers, en-
circling the throat, of a delicate magenta tint, which can be raised
or depressed at will. He afterward ascertained that they prefer
rocky hillsides at great altitudes, where only pine trees, rock
plants, and an Alpine flora are found. He frequently shot these
birds above the line of perpetual snow. Their favorite resting-
place was on the extreme point of a dead pine tree, where, if un-
disturbed, they would sit for hours. The site chosen for a nest
was usually the branch of a young pine, where it was artfully con-
cealed amidst the fronds at the very end, and rocked like a cradle
by every passing breeze.
Mountain Song Sparrow. (Mhelospiza meodia, var.fallax.)
Fig. 9.
Dr. Coues found this species a common and permanent resident
in Arizona, and he pronounces its habits, manners, and voice pre-


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