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Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / The birds of North America

[Plate LXXXIX. Brown-headed woodpecker. (Sphrapicus thyroideus.) cont.],   p. 135

Plate XC. Golden-crowned sparrow, yellow-crowned finch, or yellow-crowned sparrow. (Zonotrichia coronata.),   pp. 135-136

Page 135

flushed, and then call each other together by a whistle, very much
like that of a man calling his dog. According to Newberry, the
hen has a cluck, much like that of the common hen, when calling
together her young brood about the first of August."
Golden-crowned Sparrow, Yellow-crowned Finch, or Yellow-crowned
Sparrow. (Zonotrichia coronata.)
Fig. z.
This species, which is closely allied to the White-crowned Spar-
row (Zonotrichia leucophrys) is to be met with on the Pacific
coast. Its note is only an occasional chirp.
According to Heerman, "the nest was composed of coarse
stalks of weeds, and lined internally with fine roots. The eggs,
four in number, are ashy-white, marked with lines of brown um-
ber, sometimes appearing black from the depth of their shade, and
covered also with a few neutral tint spots."
Lazuli Finch. (Cyanospiza amxna.)
Fig. 2.
This abundant, as well as one of the handsomest, species found
on the Pacific coast, was added to our North American ornithology
by Thomas Say, who procured it during the course of Long's ex-
pedition. It is often kept in cages, and sold by dealers as the
Eastern Indigo Bird; their mistake is no doubt occasioned by the
similarity of habits and song. Then again, by some, it is taken
as a faded variety of that bird. There is very little, if any, in-
digo in its colors. Its name, Lazuli-after the celebrated lazuli-
blue stone of Italy-being so little understood, is also a cause of
the misapplication. Mr. Townsend says, " the Chinook Indians
name this species Tilkonapaooks, and that it is rather a 'omnmon
bird on the Columbia, but is always shy and retiring in its habits,
the female being very rarely seen. It possesses lively and pleas-
ing powers of song, which it pours forth from the top branches of
moderate-sized trees. Its nest, which is usually placed in the
willows along the margins of the streams, is composed of small
sticks, fine grasses, and cow or buffalo hair."
Mr. Cooper says: "1 During the summer there is scarcely a
thicket or grove in the more open portions of the state (California)
uninhabited by one or more pairs of this beautiful species. The
male is not very timid, and frequently sings his lively notes from
the top of some bush or tree, continuing musical throughout sum-
mer, and in all weathers."
The eggs are usually five in number, and are white, tinged a
little with blue.
Ganon Towhee. Brown Towhee. (Pizi ofuscus.)
Fig. 3.
This species is an inhabitant of New Mexico, Arizona, and
southward, where it is met in company with Abert's Towhee. The
habits and characteristics of these species are much alike.
Gray-orowned Purple Finch. Gray-necked or Gray-eared Finch. (Len-
costiote tephrocotis var. grisseinucha.)
Gray-crowned Finch. (Leucostiotse tephrocotis var. australis.)
Fig. S.
These varieties of the Gray-crowned Finch are figured to give
the reader and illustration of the difference that exists in their plum-
age. Their habits and characteristics are about the same as those
of the Gray-crowned Finch (Leucostiote tephrocolis), figured on
plate 7I, fig. 7.
The species, fig. 4, is of rare occurrence, and that of fig. 5 is
in doubt-some of our best ornithologists do not consider it a va-
riety. It is said to be the largest, and to have the largest bill.
California Woodpecker. (Melanerpes formicivorus.)
Fig. 6.
This handsome and well known Pacific species is about the
same in size as our common Red-headed Woodpecker.
Cooper, in his Ornithology of California, says:
", This beautiful bird is one of the commonest in all the lower
regions of California, frequenting chiefly the oaks, and extending
up as far as they grow on the mountains. Its brilliant plumage,
lively and familiar habits, and loud notes make it a very conspic-
uous inhabitant of the woods, and it will, if unmolested, become
quite familiar around dwellings. Their usual resorts are among
the topmost and decayed branches, where they seek their insect
food; but they also feed in great part on insects caught among the
leaves, and on the bark, as well as on fruits, being less industrious
in hammering for a subsistence than the Pici. They burrrow out
the cavity for a nest in a dead branch, making it, according to
Herrman, from six inches to two feet deep, and laying four or five
pure white eggs, on the dust and chips at the bottom, like nearly
all Woodpeckers.
" They are fond of playing together around the branches, utter-
ing their rattling calls, and often darting off to take a short sail in
the air, returning to the same spot. They have a habit, peculiar
to them, of drilling small holes in the bark of trees, and fitting
acorns tightly into them, each one being carefully adapted, and
driven tight. The bark is often so full of these holes as to leave
scarcely room to crowd in another without destroying the bark en-
tirely. These are generally considered as laid up for a winter
supply of food; but while, in this climate, no such provision is
necessary, it is also very improbable that birds of this family would
feed on hard nuts, or seeds of any kind. The more probable ex-
planation is that they are preserved for the sake of the grubs they
contain so frequently, which, being very small when the acorn
falls, grow until they eat the whole interior, when they are a wel-
come delicacy for the bird. From this strange habit, the bird has
received the name of I Carpintero,' and this is also adopted by
many Americans."
Yellow-bellled or Yellow-faced Woodpecker. (Centurus aurifrous.)
Fig. 7.
This species is usually met with in the Rio Grande region of the
United States, thence south into Mexico. It is about the size of
our common Downy Woodpecker (Picus pubescens.)
Least Titmouse. (Psaltrip arus minimus.)
Fig. &
|ig qThis little Titmouse is usually observed in the evergreen oaks,
Fig. +

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