Nieuhof, Johannes, 1618-1672 / An embassy from the East-India Company of the United Provinces, to the Grand Tartar Cham, emperor of China: delivered by their excellencies Peter de Goyer and Jacob de Keyzer, at his imperial city of Peking wherein the cities, towns, villages, ports, rivers, &c. in their passages from Canton to Peking are ingeniously described by John Nieuhoff; also an epistle of Father John Adams, their antagonist, concerning the whole negotiation; with an appendix of several remarks taken out of Father Athanasius Kircher; Englished and set forth with their several sculptures by John Ogilby
[Kircher appendix] Chap. II. Of the political government of the Chineses., pp. 403-404
D Vecription o H $ A C'H A P... Of the Political 9overnment of the Chinefes. 'l~eingin the former Ci a pers we have treated at large of the Politica Empire of the Cbinefes, here I .1hoght good to adjoin fome things wor. th ofgreaterconfideration: The Emperor of china is abfolutc Lord Ci L I a u VVLuaIJar y1a..a E1i LV i LJAs L. LIir 51jU '.JI UV L1 U 1U I ,[L|[l ! [.'a1 . no perron may undertake any Bufinefs of importance without his Affent. The Monar- chy defceadeh faccelfi-vly from tnhe father to theSons, and where the Dire& Line fails, it runs Collateral ; allthe re*, whether they be Brethren or Ne- phews, or mlirways join'd in Confanguinity, are honor'd with the Title of Kings, each of them having a Province affign'd him, which they Rule, but yet with fuch a limitation of Authority, that having certain Revenues afMign'd them, all the reft is trainsfiri'd into the Emperor's Treafury. There are fix Tribunals or Courts of Juflice which determine alft Cufes and C'ohtroverfies of the whole Lpiree: The fii for ch-fingof Magiftrates: The f'cond, the Exthequer of his Imperial Majeflies Revenues- " The third, .for Emergencies in Ecckfiaflical Aifaits: The fourth, for the Militia: The fifth orders Pub-*~ lick Edifices, and fuch like Buildings : The fixth fpreads it felf into feveral Courts, concerning Criminal Caufes. Ahd bythefd fix,with their fubordinate Officers, 'll Bufinefs is difpatch'd. The Emperor hath Lords of his Privy- Council, which they call Culaos, who as they are P rfons excellently vers'd in the knowledge of State Affairs, fo alfo they are had in eflimation next to him- felf ; he hath likewife his Governors, or Lords Lituteants, of divets Degrees,. which are term'd Mandorini, and accomplifh'd in, variety of Learning and Knowledge, fo that the whole Kingdom is in a manner Kul'd (as I'latees Com-. monwealth) only by Learned Men ; and that Kingdom cannot but arrive to the greatcef heighth of Felicity, in which either the Prince aets like a Philofo- pher, or a Philofopher Reigneth. This is manifeif by the innunerable multi. tudes of the Inhabitana, which the Emperor Governeth with as much facility, as te Mafter of a Family doth his Houfe . it is alfo clear from the Magnitude, Splendor, and incredible Magnificence of the Cities, and the frequency of Bridges, the Struture of which, whether you have refpe& to their Length, or the Rules of b rchiteetuie,hath amaz' fuch as beheld them: Add unto this the convenience of Publick Paffagrs, ethe a flx of Shipping from all Parts refort. ing to the Metropo itan Cities, the indefatigable Labor and lndttlry of the Iusb.ndmuen in Cultivating their Lands,,the great Vigilancy and unwearied Guard of the Soldiery, the extraordinary Rigor and Severity of the Judges in punifhing Malefaaors; all whicb cannot have their original ia fogreat an Empire, without the fuppofition of excellent Laws cftablifl'd for the con-ir.. marion of the Peace and Tranquility thereof. As forthe Emperor's annual Revenus, although they are not always fix'd and certtain, by reafon of the vicitfitude and alteration of Times, yet for the ....a ;#% ,.. ,,. '-%I.,,,, ,,, il, motint ra! es ooo t"ooo Tave. _accordina td their Exchequer Rolls, in which, as Father Martninu aouch only the number of the Inhabitants in every Province ar Compute of each Years Revenue moft exaaly Regiftred.
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