The Art journal illustrated catalogue: the industry of all nations, 1851
Gordon, Lewis D. B.
The machinery of the exhibition: as applied to textile manufactures, pp. I##-VIII##
THEE MACHINERY OF THE EXHIBITION. the view of makind their -charaeteritiic eellencies undeitood, but without any pretension to seit f'orth their comparative merits further than mentioning those features that display the progressive improvement of the various processes selected far 9!our purpose. As in the labour Df the artifleer there isembined a phyaiml exertion and a manual dexterity,-tAhe latter-an emanation of mental exertion, the former requiring a regular supply of food and raiment .to the body, in order that the " right hand may not lose its eunning,"-so in manufacturing machinery, there are two great principles developed; there are machines which are adapted to receive and modify the powers of nature, and Hi=__ machines which are contrived for the transport and for the change of theform or-texture ofimaterials. 7 1: 5 ii 4 ^Every -machine is contrived to perform some given mecha- i X AdF l |J nical process, which supposes the existence of two other UP' /? } " g t }g FMthings besides the machine, namely, a moving power and work .1)~f; 5 /5 v '! g~to be done, i.e., an object subject to the process in question. Machines, in fact, -are interposed between- the power and the work, for the purpose of adapting the one to the other. As an example connected with our subject, the old ig- wheel may be cited, in which the spindle and fly -are made to revolve by application of the foot to a treadle. Here the motive power is derived from muscular action: the operation of spinning is carried on by drawing out the fibre from the rock, and supplying it regularly to the fly, which is caused to turn rapidly and twist it into a thread or yarn. The arrange- ment of the form of the fly and spindle, and its connection with the foot in such a manner that the pressure of the latter shall communicate the required motion -to the former, is the function and object of the machine. AS170 EXT LE MA-NUFA-CTURES. This machine, we see, consists of a series of connected pieces, beginning with the treadle, the construction, -position, BY LEWsso . of. GORDON, and motion of which are determined by the -nature of the Regius Professor of Mechanics, U~niversity of Glasgow. moving power, and ending with the fly and spindle- but this is, in fact, the description of every machine. There is always *one or more series of connected pieces, at one end of which is a part especially adapted to receive the action of the power- TIE term manufacture is no longer such as a steam-engine, a water-wheel, a horse-lever, a handle confined to its original significa- or a treadle. At the other end of each series will be found a tion-the production of human set of parts determined in form, position, and motion, by the manipulation-but is now gene- nature of the work they have to do, and which may be called rally applied to articles made by the working pieces: between them are placed trains of me- w : fr machinery, from raw materials, chanism, connecting them so that, when the first parts move supplied by a beneficent Provi- according to the law assigned to them by the action of the dence, for adaptation by the power, the second must necessarily move according to the Jaw industr~y and ingenuity of man required by the nature of the work. for the wants and enjoyments of civilised There are, we thus see, three classes of mechanical organ t t ;;;^, society.ndependent of each other, inasmuchla, on the one hand, any To some minds manufacturing has lost its set of operators or working .parts may be put in motion by dignity by the substitution of the iron arms power derived fom any source. Thus, a Sly and idle may a nd fingers of machinery, for the bone and be turned either by the foot, by water, or by steam. Again, sinew and nerves of the cunning artificer a given steam-engie, or water-wheel, or any other er d s who, within little more than a century, pro- power, may be employed to give motion to any required set-d duced all that then existed of manufac- working parts for any process whatever. Ilso, Ketween a ture. But this is surely a misconception; given receiver ofyower and setofworkingparstheiterposed and a very different impression will, we conceive, be left on mechanism may be varied in very many ways. Moreover the the minds of all who have had' an opportunity, however principlespon which the osion and arranement of cursory, of contemplating the tools and machinery applied to these three classes of mechanical organs are founded -Are differ- manufactures, so liberally ;displayed in the Exhibition of the ent. The receivers of power derive their form from a corm- Industry of all Nations, mad which we are now to endeavour bination of mechanical principles with the physical laws which briefly to elucidate and e~lA~~in. govern the respective sources of power. -The operators derive The object we lise in view is to convey to general their form from -a combination of mechanical principl wh readers such information on the principles and exact func considerationsderived from $heproesrestoeperformed. he tions of manufacturing machinery, as will increase their principles of the interposed mechanism are purely geometric, interest in what they may have seen for the first, and, in many and may be developed without reference to the powers employd cses, it -may -be for the last time, in the Great Exhibition, or transmitted. Mechanism is a combination of pats connect- and enable them to -carry away with them truer impressions ing two or more pieces, so that when one moves accordig to a of the amount df thought and ingenuity that has been es- given law, the others must move according to certain other pended in the creation of the automatic fabricators of the given laws. A train so f mechanism is compoiedo a series of most complex as well assirnplest necessaries and conveniences moveable pieces, each of which is so connected with the fe- they find in use in their routine life, than they otherwise work of the machine, that when in motion every point of it is could do. It is not our intention to describe this manufac- constrained to move in a certain path, in which, however, if torng machinery in detail, suited for the instruction of considered separately from the other pieces, it is at liber to manufacturers; we .shall only attempt to give a correct move in the two opposite directions, and with anyelocity. accowuntof the mechanical processes exhibited, sketched with Thus, wheels, pulleys, shafts, and revoling pieces, ge l
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