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Bishop, J. Leander (John Leander), 1820-1868 / A history of American manufactures from 1608 to 1860 : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the Constitution ; and comprising annals of the industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of the important inventions, tariffs, and the results of each decennial census
Volume 3 (1868)

Manufactures of Vermont,   pp. 455-457

Page 455

VERMONT is more exclusively agricultural than any of the other
Northern States. In 1850 the persons engaged in jagricultural pursuits
exeeeded those employed in manufactures in the proportion of nearly six
to one. In 1860, according to the census returns, there were in the State
1501 manufacturing establishments, producing more than $500 a year,
which had a capital invested of $9,500,000, employed 8940 male, and
1860 female hands, and yielded products valued at $16,000,000. The
census-takers in this State appear, however, to have been more negligent
in the performance of their duties than usual, for, including carpenters,
builders, and blacksmiths, which are enumerated in other places, we have
before us a list of the names of over 3000 individuals and firms engaged
in manufacturing pursuits in Vermont in 1860, and it would be prepos-
terous to assume, though the factories are generally small, that as many as
one-half of them made less than $500 per year. Of these establishments,
about 1500 were engaged in the various manufactures of wood, there being
in the State over 600 saw, clapboard, and shingle-mills; 50 manufacturers
of wash-boards, butter firkins, clothes-pins, pails, wooden bowls, etc.; 250
carriage and sleigh manufacturers; 150 cabinet-makers; 50 chair and 75
bedstead manufacturers; 26 pill, cheese, and packing-box factories; 50
manufacturers of agricultural implements; 80 of doors, sash, and blinds;
4 of axe-helves; and 13 of broom, fork, hoe, and scythe-handles. There
were in the State over 400 boot and shoe shops, and 160 tanning and
currying shops, about 50 iron foundries, 75 machine shops, 1 car, and 1
car-wheel manufactory. The number of grist and flouring mills exceeded
300. There were also 17 paper mills, 5 paint, 4 linseed-oil, and 2 yellow-
ochre manufactories. About 20 firms are engaged in the quarrying and
working marble at Rutland, Dorset, and Brandon; and slate is quarried at
Castleton, Fairhaven, Guilford, and other places, by about the same num-
ber of individuals and firms, including some important incorporated com-
panies.  There were in the State, in 1860, 8 cotton mills, which
employed 157 male, and 222 female hands, and produced print cloths,
wadding, batting, etc., of the value of $357,450; and 51 woollen mills,
having 23,371 spindles, 463 looms, employed 901 male and 1178 female
hands, and produced a value of $2,961,137.
Within the last few years there has been considerable increase in the
development of the natural resources of the State, especially marble, slate,
iron, and porcelain; but there is yet a very remarkable deficiency in
extensive establishments. With the exception of the Brandon Iron and

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