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Bishop, J. Leander (John Leander), 1820-1868 / A history of American manufactures from 1608 to 1860 : exhibiting the origin and growth of the principal mechanic arts and manufactures, from the earliest colonial period to the adoption of the Constitution ; and comprising annals of the industry of the United States in machinery, manufactures and useful arts, with a notice of the important inventions, tariffs, and the results of each decennial census
Volume 3 (1868)

Manufactures of Manchester, N.H.,   pp. 449-450

Page 449

MANCHESTER, situated on the Merrimack river, 58 miles from Boston,
is the largest manufacturing town in New Hampshire. In 1860, according
to the census returns, it had 178 manufactories, with an aggregate capital
of $8,327,695, employing 3104 male, and 5024 female hands, and pro-
duced a value of $10,665,296. Fully three-fourths of this amount was in
cotton and mixed goods, made by four Companies, which had an aggregate
capital of $6,300,000.
Manchester, like Lawrence and Lowell, is a magnificent specimen of the
enterprise and skill of the New England people. Thirty-five years ago the
place upon which the city is built was occupied by a few farmers, there
being nothing more than a small village at Amoskeag Falls. It is now a
municipality, with a population of 25,000, which is rapidly increasing. Its
prosperity is due largely to the proprietors of the AMOSKEAG MANUFAC-
TURING COMPANY, who owned originally, 26,000 acres, lying on both
sides of the river; and who, instead of attempting a great speculation, dis-
posed of the land on very favorable terms, and encouraged manufacturing
enterprises. This Company was incorporated in July, 1831, and com-
menced operations in 1839. Its capital was originally $1,000,000, but has
since been increased to $3,000,000. Its business comprises the selling of
lands, letting water-power, and manufacturing cotton goods and machinery,
including locomotives. In all these enterprises, the Company has been
remarkably successful; and during the last two years it declared annual
dividends of 40 per cent. upon its capital stock. When in full opera-
tion, this Company gives employment to over 3000 persons.
The "Stark Mills" is another large corporation in Manchester, and com-
menced operations in 1839, with an authorized capital of $1,250,000. This
Company has two mills employed in making ducks, denims, sheetings
and canton flannels, and seamless grain-bags-a novel and important article
of trade. These bags are 45 inches long, and are manufactured of various
qualities and weight. The warp is a double one; and, by the construction
of the loom, the "filling," or weft, traverses both sides, uniting the warps
at the edge, instead of producing a selvage. The loom-the invention of
Cyrus W. Baldwin-is a perfect self-actor or automaton. It commences
the bag, goes on until the requisite number of picks has been thrown in,
to make up the length; it then closes the bottom, throws in a given num-
ber of picks as a tab, and then commences another bag. All that the
weaver has to do is to attend, in the usual way, to the perfect working of
the machine, and cut out each bag, as from their thickness, any quantity

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