Geare, Randolph I.
Japanese bronzes, pp. 481-487
JAPANESE BRONZES JAPANESE BRONZES. BY RAN- DOLPH I. GEARE, NATIONAL MU- SEUM, WASHINGTON, D. C. HE bronze used by the Japanese in early times was either of Chinese or Korean origin, and from these peoples they derived much of their knowledge of things artistic. Five kinds of bronze were then recognized: Karakane, made of copper and tin; Skakudo, of cop- per, silver and gold; Shibui, chi, containing five to fifty per cent. of silver to copper; Shirichiu (brass), from twen- ty-five to fifty per cent. of zinc to copper; and Seido, composed of copper, lead and tin. Prior to the Christian era, Japan imported bronze mir- rors and other objects from China and Korea; but bronze composed of metal from Jap- anese ores was probably not made much earlier than the end of the seventh century, A. D. The descendants of Koreans, mingling with the Japanese, were among the first native bronze manufac- turers. Swords and arrow- beads were the first articles, made by these craftsmen, and later, objects of enormous size were cast, such as the colossal image called Yakusi Niorai in the temple of Yakushi at Nara, made about 700 A. D. and believed to be the work of the Korean monk Gio~i: the great bell in the grounds of the Todai temple at Nara, which measured thirteen feet six inches high; the gigantic image of Rochana, in the same temple, fifty-three feet high, and said to contain five hundred pounds of gold, sixteen thousand eight hundred twenty-seven pounds of tin, nine- teen hundred fifty-four pounds of mercury, and nine hundred eighty-six thousand and eighty pounds of copper. Japan was shaken by revolutions from --------igure i. oyni 481 001 01L guuu guvur"wvnL -u auviam vv-
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