Pain, William (1730?-1790?) / Pain's British Palladio, or, The builder's general assistant.
A Description of the Designs in Pain's British Palladio., pp. 1-7
[I] A DESCRIPTION OF THE DESIGNS IN PAIN's BRITISH PALLADIO. Plate I. The principal plan and elevations of a gentleman's house, with the principal timbers for the floors, roofs, partitions, and the scantlings figured for practice, in proportion to their bearings. The length of the griders on this floor is 23 feet; the clear between the walls 21 feet 6 inches; the scantlings 13 by 12 inches; the clear bearing of the binding-joist about 10 feet, the scantling 9 inches by 4 1/2, and they must be framed about half an inch below the underside of the grider, and the grider furred down for the lathing, otherwise the ceiling will crack at the grider, which will spoil its beauty. The scantling of the bridging-joist, 5 inches by 3, to lie about a foot apart; the ceiling joist, 3 by 2 1/2; the distances for framing the binding joist from 4 feet to 6, or 6 feet 6 inches, as they will best come in. The distance for framing the trimmer from the chimney-breast 1 foot 6 inches, or not to exceed 1 foot 9 inches. Wall-hold, for griders to lie on the wall, from 9 inches to 12 inches; ditto for binding-joist 6 inches. It is necessary to turn arches over the ends of griders; for, if any settlement should happen, that will prevent the wall from breaking. Of the rooms on the principal plan. A the dining-room; B the withdrawing-room; C the common sitting-parlor; D the breakfast-room; E the best stair-case; F the back-stairs; G vestibule. Fig. H the section of the floor for the principal rooms; a the grider; b the binding-joist; c the bridging-joist; d the ceiling-joist. This section is drawn half an inch to a foot. Divide the depth of the binding-joist into eight parts, and dispose of them as figured to the tenons and bearings. PLATE II. The basement-plan and section of plate I. with apartments laid out. A the kitchen; B servants hall; C the housekeeper's room; D store room to ditto; E butler's pantry; F wine-cellar; G beer cellar; H stair-case; I passage; K stair-case to the area; L section from M to N on the plan. PLATE III. Plan of the one-pair of stairs floor, and attics. A the one-pair floor; B the attic floor. The one-pair is divided into five bed-rooms, the attic into six. Fig. A is the section of the floors for the one-pair and attics, drawn half an inch to a foot. The principal joists to this floor are about half an inch deeper than the griders, to prevent the ceiling from cracking; and they are framed at such a distance as will admit of two or three immediate joists between them, as shewn in the section. The ceiling-joist is framed into the principal joist, as in the section. B the intermediate joist; D the principal joist; C the ceiling joist; G the griders. PLATE IV. The plan of the roof, and section of the floors. Fig. A the plan of the roof; B the beams; C the binding-joist for the ceiling-floor; D the ceiling-joist; E the raising-plate; F the principal rafters. The length of the beams is 48 feet, which have a bearing on the party-wall, so that the clear bearing does not exceed 24 feet; the scantling of ditto 9 inches by 6 1/2; length of the principal rafters 15 feet; scantling, 9 inches at bottom, 7 at top, 6 1/2 inches thick; king-post 1 foot 4 inches by 6 1/2 thick; struts 6 1/2 by 4; raising plate, 9 inches by 6, binding-joist, 6 by 4; ceiling joist, 3 1/2 by 2 1/2; scantling to quarter-partitions, 4 by 3; door-post, 4 by 4. Fig. B, scarfing-plates and dove-tailing at angles; fig. C, joggling beams on the raising-plates; P the pole-plate for the small rafters to stand on; R the principal rafter, &c. PLATE V. Principal plan and elevation of a gentleman's house. A the hall; B the dining-room; C the withdrawing-room; D the common sitting-room; E the dressing-room for the master; F the smoaking-room; G the musick-room; H best-stairs; I back-stairs; K water-closet; L closet to put the utensils in for cleaning the house; M stair-case to basement. PLATE
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