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Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / Birds of North America
(1903)

[Plate CXVI. Ivory gull. (Larus eburneus.) cont.],   p. 177


Page 177


TERN-GEESE-JLEGERS-SANDPIPER-SURF BIRD-BUZZARDS-HAWKS-OWL, ETC. 177
water, and are often seen taking up small fish. Nuttall says, they
frequently fly on board of ships at sea, and are so stupid or indo-
lent, on such occasions, as to suffer themselves to be taken by the
hand from the yards on which they settle; they sometimes, how-
ever, when seized, bite and scratch with great resolution, leading
one to imagine that they are disabled often from flight by exces-
sive fatigue or hunger. The nest is built in bushes or low trees,
and they breed in great numbers.
Arctic Tern. (Sternamacroura.)
Fig. IX.
This species is a general inhabitant of the coasts of North Amer-
ica, extending its migration south to the Middle States, and on the
Pacific side to California. Its habits are very similar to the Great
or Common Tern, represented on Plate XI, fig. 3, page 12.
Horned Wary Ross' Goose. (Anser rossii.)
Fig. 15.
This species is a resident of Arctic America, migrating in winter
as far south as San Francisco, where it has been obtained.
Lesser Snow Goose. (Anser hyPerboreus, var. albatus.)
Fig. x6.
This bird is a variety of the typical species of Snow Goose, re-
presented on Plate LXXIV, fig. 4, page II3. It is distributed
9ver the greater part of North America, principally southwest.
Pomerine Jager, or Skua. (Stercorarius bomatorhinus.)
Fig. 17.
This bird, like most all the others of its family, principally in-
habits the Arctic Seas and coasts of both continents. Its food
consists of putrid matter, obtained at sea, and fish and the eggs of
sea birds.
Arctic, Long-tailed, or Buffon's Juger. (Stercorarius bufoni.)
Fig. x&
The appearance of the plumage of this species as well as its
habitat is the same as the last named.
Curlew Sandpiper. (Tringa subarquata.)
Fig. 1x.
This Sandpiper is an European species, which is met along
the Atlantic Coast of North America, as a straggler.
Surf Bird. (Aphriza virgata.)
Fig. 2o.
A specimen of this Plover was obtained by Dr. Townsend at the
mouth of the Columbia River. It inhabits the Coasts and Islands
of the Pacific.
PLATE CXVII.
Western Red-shouldered Buzzard. (Buteo lineatus, var. degans.)
Fig. z.
This bird is a Western variety of the typical species, represented
on Plate LXXXI, fig. 3, page I25.
Krider's Buzzard; White-bellied Red-tail. (Butee borealis, var. hrideri.)
Fig. 2.
This variety of the Red-tailed Buzzard, represented on Plate
XXX, page 37, is met on the plains of the United States from Min-
nesota to Texas.
Suckley's Hawk; Black Merlin. (Falco columbarius, var.suckleyi.)
Fig. 3.
Along the coast of Northern California, Oregon, and Washing-
ton Territory this variety of the well-known Pigeon Hawk, repre-
sented on Plate XXXII, figures 3 and 4, page 40, is to be met
with. The habits of the birds are quite similar.
Black Peregrine Falcon; Peale's Duck Hawk. (Falco peregrinus, var.
pealei.)
Fig. 4
The coloration of the plumage of this bird is very much like
that of the last. It is a variety of the typical species, represented
on Plate VI, page 7, and is met on the Northwest Coast of North
America, from Oregon to Sitka.
Florida Mottled Owl. (Scops asio, var.jforidana.)
Fig. 5.
An extreme Southern variety of the typical species, represented
on Plate LXXXI, fig. 2, page 125.
Rocky Mountain Jay. (Perisoreus canadensis, var. capitalis.)
Fig. 6.
This bird is a Rocky Mountain variety of the typical species,
reresented on Plate LXVII, fig. 3, page 97.
Brown Jay. (Psilorhinus morio.)
Fig. 7.
Lieutenant Couch obtained specimens of this species at Boquillo,
San Diego, and at China, in Northeastern Mexico, when he saw
them living in forests of high trees. Its habits are similar to other
Jays; its notes are also harsh and loud.
White-necked Raven or Crow. (Corvus cryptoleucus.)
Fig. &
This species is an inhabitant of the Southwestern parts of North
America. According to Mr. Clark, this species does not possess
the cunning or wariness of its congeners. It was met with by him
in the greatest abundance about watering-places, and he saw many
congregated at the head of the Limpia, flying about the face of an
immense rocky mountain wall. Their note he describes as coarse,
and less shrill than that of the common Crow.
Audubon's Caraoara; King Buzzard; Caracara Eagle.
tharus, var. auduboni.)
(Polyborus
Fig. 9.
Audubon met with this species in Florida, in the winter of i83I,
and found it to be common. Its habitat is mostly in the extreme
Southern portions of North America. Dr. Woodhouse met with it


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