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Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / Birds of North America
(1903)

Plate CXVI. Ivory gull. (Larus eburneus.),   p. 176


Page 176


CHICKADEE-W OODPECKER-G ULLS-PETREL-DIVER-TERN.
blossoms of the fruit trees. Nearly all go north; but a few retire
to the woods to breed. Its song so much resembles that of the
Chestnut-sided Warbler that it might readily be mistaken for it. To
this cause, he thinks, and to the difficulty of seeing such small
birds in the dense summer foliage, is doubtless owing the fact of its
being so commonly overlooked by naturalists during the summer
months, rather than to its [supposed] rarity in that latitude at
that season.
Long-tailed Chickadee, (Parus atricapillus, var. scp~en riorats.)
Fig. I..
This bird is a western variety of the typical species, represented
on Plate XXXII, fig. 4, page 42, and is met with in the Missouri
and Rocky Mountain regions.
Banded, or White-baoked, Three-toed Woodpecker. (Picoides ameri-
canus, var. dorsalis.)
Fig. 12.
A Rocky Mountain variety of the typical species, represented
on Plate LIII, fig. 2, page 79.
PLATE CXVI.
Ivory Gull. (Larus eburneus.
Fig. ,.
American Mew Gull. (Larus canes, var. brachyrhynchus.)
Fig. 2.
California Gull. (Larus delawarensis, var. californicus.)
Fig. 3.
Ring-billed Gull. (Larns delawarensis.)
Fig. 4
Glaucous-winged Gull. (Laruesglaucesceus.)
Fig. 5.
White-winged Gull. (Larus lucpeerus.)
Fig. 6.
Glaucous; Ice Gull; Burgomaster. (Larusglaucus.)
Fig. 7.
Franklin's Rosy Gull. (Larusfranhlixi.)
Fig. 32.
Short-billed Gull; Red-legged Kittiwake. (Lares brevirostris.)
Fig. z3.
Pacific Kittiwake Gull. (Larus tridactylus, var. hotsebzWei.)
Fig. £4
Gulls are in the strictest sense all sea birds, and only occasion-
ally wander inland, breeding in northern latitudes among the
various cliffs and rocks. According to Dr. Brehm, Fishing Gulls
walk well, wade readily in the shallow water near the shore, swim
lightly and buoyantly upon a rough sea, and often sleep upon the
water. Their flight is slow, but by no means heavy, and can be
sustained for a considerable time.  With long strokes of their
wings, they sweep onward through the air, sometimes flying in
circles, sometimes mounting upward against the wind, and again
descend to the surface of the sea. In their flights, they appear to
be quite at their ease, even during the wildest storms, and may
frequently be seen plunging into the sea from a considerable
height upon any prey that they may happen to espy. In sagacity
and courage the Gulls are superior to their kindred; but they like-
wise surpass them in thieving and gluttony. They care little for
the society of their brethren; nevertheless, it is a rare thing to see
one of them alone. These Gulls subsist principally on fishes of
various size, and regard carrion, whether of fish or flesh, as very
delectable food. They also kill and devour small quadrupeds and
young or disabled birds. They rob the feebler sea-fowl of their
eggs, and search upon the beach for worms and other animals.
Should the shell of a crab or mussel be too hard for their beak,
they at once fly with it into the air, and- then dropping it from a
sufficient elevation upon the rocks beneath, shatter it to pieces.
The Ivory Gull (fig. I) is a resident of the Arctic Seas, migrat-
ing southward in winter.
The American Mew Gull (fig. 2) is a variety of the European
type, and is a resident of the interior of Arctic America and the
Pacific Coast.
The California Gull (fig. 3). An abundant bird, inhabiting the
interior of Arctic America and the Pacific Coast of North America.
The Ring-billed Gull (fig. 4) is an inhabitant along the larger
waters throughout the interior, as well as the coasts of North
America.
The Glaucous-winged Gull (fig. 5) is met with on the Pacific
Coast of North America.
The White-winged Gull (fig. 6) is met on the Northern and
Arctic Seas, extending its migrations south in winter, on the Pa-
cific Coast of North America, as far as to Long Island.
The Ice Gull (fig. 7) has the same habitat as the last named.
The Franklin Rosy Gull (fig. I2). An abundant interior species
that is met with in the high latitudes of North America, and ex-
tends its migrations in winter to Central and South America,
Mexico, and part of the West Indies.
The Short-billed Gull (fig. 13) is an abundant species of the
North Pacific Coast.
The Pacific Kittiwake Gull (fig. 14) has the same habitat as the
last named.
White-bellied Petrel; Black and White Stormy Petrel.
gralaria.)
(Fregetta
Fig. &
There is but one instance of the taking of a specimen of this
species, and that was obtained on the Florida Coast. The habits
of this Petrel are about the same as those described on page i6o.
Pacific Black-throated Diver. (Colymbzus arcticus, var. pacoifcus.y
Fig. 9.
This variety of the typical species, represented on Plate CVI,
fig. IO, page I6o, is a very common bird on the coast of Califor-
nia in winter.
Noddy Tern. (Anous stolidus.)
Fig. to.
This is a very common species of the South Atlantic and Pacific
Coasts. It passes its time mostly far out at sea, flying near the
17dS


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