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Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / Birds of North America

[Plate CVI. Crested grebe. (Podiceps cristatus.) cont.],   p. 161

Page 161

their young by disgorging food; at these times, and on other oc-
casions, they are observed to hide themselves by day, and sally
out towards twilight in pursuit of their prey. They are, however,
by no means nocturnal when at sea, and are seen alike in fair or
foul weather, but scarcely follow vessels but in breezes, as their own
ordinary resources for obtaining food are equally productive in
calm weather.
The Fork-tailed Petrel is an inhabitant of North Pacific coast.
Hornby's Petrel is an inhabitant of the Northwest coast.
The Ashy Petrel is met with on the California coast.
The Black Petrel is also an inhabitant of the coast of California.
The Wedge-tailed, or Least Petrel has been found in Lower
Leach's Petrel is common to both coasts.
Ruff. (Philomachus pugnax.)
Fig. M6.
This bird, originally a native of the northern portion of the
Eastern hemisphere, is occasionally met with on the New England
coast, and in the Middle States. In the old world it is a widely
distributed species, and is particularly noted for its pugnacity.
Nauman says, that this species never remains near or ventures
into the water, but after joining in the busy scene for a short time,
always returns to its usual haunts. Unlike other Sandpipers, these
birds are met with far inland, where they not only dwell upon the
banks of rivers, but wander into the plains and cultivated districts.
Water insects, beetles, and worms, with seeds of many kinds, af-
ford them the means of subsistence, and for these they seek prin-
cipally at early morning or evening, visiting certain spots with
great regularity, and keeping strictly within a limited hunting
ground. Whilst thus engaged they move leisurely, and with con-
scious dignity, keeping steadily and quietly at work, and only be-
traying their presence by a weak hoarse cry, as they rise with light
and hovering wing into the air.
Solitary Tattler, Wood Tattler, or Sandpiper. (Totanus solitarius.)
Fig. 17.
This species is abundantly to be met with during the migration
season, spring and fall, in most all wet woods, moist meadows and
secluded pools. Its breeding places are usually found in the moun-
tainous portions of the United States and northward. Their food
consists of aquatic insects of all sorts, thin worms, grubs, and at
times the smaller sorts of molluscs, also sand and gravel to assist
digestion. The note of this bird, when alarmed, consists of a low
whistle, uttered as they fly off.
Paoiflo Fulmar. (Fulmarusglacialis, var. pacificus.)
Fig. x.
Rodger's Fulmar. (Fulmariusglacialis, var. rodgeri.)
Fig. 2.
Slender-billed Fulmar. (Fulmarius tennerostris.)
Fig. 3.
The habits and characteristics of these birds are similar to those
of the Petrels, figures ii, 12, I3, I4 and 15, mentioned on Plate
CV1., page i6o, and of the Fulinar represented on Plate LXXV.,
fig. 6, page ii6.
The Pacific Fulmar is a North Pacific coast variety of the Ful-
mar (Fulmarus glacialis), represented on Plate LXXV., fig. 6,
page iI6, has a weaker bill and is darker on the mantle.
Rodger's Fulmar is also a North Pacific coast variety of the
Fulmar just mentioned. Its mantle being still darker than the
variety Pacific Fulmar.
The Slender-billed Fulmar is a casual visitor to the Pacific coast.
Cinereous Puffin, or Sheerwater. (Puffinus kuAhii.)
Fig. 4
Dusky Puffin, Sheerwater, or Petrel. (Puginus obscurus.)
Fig. S.
Greater, or Wandering Puffin, or Sheerwater. (Pujf'inus major.)
Fig. 6.
Flesh-footed Puffin, or Sheerwater. (Pujfinus creatopus.)
Fig. xo.
Black-tailed Puffin, or Sheerwater. (Puflinus melanurus.)
Fig. 11.
Sooty Puffin, or Sheerwater. (Puffinus fuliginosus.)
Fig. ,2.
Manks Puffin, or Sheerwater. (Pu/Jinus anglorum.)
Fig. 13.
Blaok-vented Puffin, or Sheerwater. (Pujinus opisthomelas.)
Fig. 4.
Dark-bodied Puffin, or Sheerwater. (Puffinus amaurosoma.)
Fig. IS.
Slender-billed Puffin, or Sheerwater. (P ffnus tenuirostris.)
Fig. M6.
Puffins, or Sheerwaters are met with in most all parts of the
Old as well as the New World, and like the Stormy, or Swallow
Petrels, or Fulmars, live almost wholly out at sea. Their chief
characteristic, and for which they are distinguished, consists of
their power of diving to obtain food, which consists of fishes and
molluscous animals. They are also distinguishable from all their
allies by the violence of their flight. They visit the land for the
purpose of hatching and rearing their young, during which time
they are usually met with in such vast numbers as to almost cover
the rocks on which they build. At other times they are met with
in flocks of from six to twelve.
The Cinereous Sheerwater is a bird lately introduced to our
North American fauna. It is a common species of the North
The Dusky Sheerwater, a common species of the South Atlan-
tic coast, as far as the Middle States.
The Great, or Wandering Sheerwater, is an abundant species,
met with on the whole extent of the Atlantic coast.
The Flesh-footed Sheerwater has been met with at St. Nicholas
Island, California.
The Black-tailed Sheerwater is met w th off the coast of Cali-
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