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Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / Birds of North America
(1903)

[Plate CV. Rio Grande, or green jay. (Xanthoura incas, var. luxuosa.) cont.],   pp. 157-158


Page 157


SWIFTS-WARBLERS-FINCHES-SPARROWS-NIGHT-HAWKS-FLYCATCHER.
Black Swift. (Nephcecetes nigar, var. borealis.)
Fig. 9.
Western North America and the West Indies is the irregular
habitat of this rare species. Its general habits and characteristics
are very similar to the Chimney Swift, represented on Plate
LXXVI., fig. 7, page ii8.
Pacific Orange-orowned Warbler. (Helrinthophaga celata, var. lutes-
cens.)
Fig. io.
This bird is the Pacific Coast variety of our Common Orange-
crowned Warbler (Helminthophaga celata), represented on Plate
LXX., fig. IO, page Ioo. Its migrations are said to extend from
Alaska to Cape St. Lucas.
Nevada Finch; Artemisia Sparrow. (Poospiza belli, var. nevadensis.)
Fig. iX.
These birds, according to Mr. Ridgeway, have a very general
distribution, extending as far west as the eastern base of the Sierra
Nevada. At Carson City, February 27, he heard for the first time
their sweet, sad chant. A week later, he found the sage-brush
full of these birds, the males being in full song and answering one
another from all directions. In walking through the sage-brush
these Sparrows were seen on every side, some running upon the
ground with their tails elevated, uttering a chipping twitter, as they
sought to conceal themselves behind the shrubs. Some were seen
to alight upon the tops of dead stalks, where they sit with their
tails expanded almost precisely after the manner of the King-bird.
The song of this bird is feeble, but is unsurpassed for sweetness
and sadness of tone. While its effect is very like the song of a
Meadow Lark singing afar off, there is, besides its peculiar sad-
ness, something quite unique in its modulation and delivery. It is
a chant, in style somewhat like the spring warbling of the Shore
Lark. See Bell's Finch (Poospiza belli), Plate C., fig. IO, page
]47
Cassin's Sparrow, or Pine Finch. (Pezuea cassini.)
Fig. 12.
Texas to California, southward to Mexico and north to Kansas,
is the range of this species. Its habits, general appearance, nest-
building and eggs are similar to Bachman's Finch, represented on
Plate LXVI., fig. 4, page 95. Mr. Allen met with this bird in
Kansas, and says, " it is rather common along the streams, when
its low but peculiarly sweet song is heard at morning and evening,
beginning with the first approach of dawn and continuing at even-
ing considerably after nightfall. It is very retiring, and it was
only after several attempts that I discovered the author of the sweet
notes that at these still hours added greatly to the pleasure of camp-
ing on the plains."
Arizona Sparrow or Finch. (Peucara astivalis, var. arizona.)
Fig. 13.
This bird is a variety of Bachman's Finch, represented on Plate
LXVI., fig. 4, page 95. It is met with in Los Nogales, Sonora,
and Southern Arizona. Their habits, nesting and eggs are sim-
ilar.
Gambel's, or Western White-crowned Sparrow. (Zonotrichia leuce-
phrys, var. gambeli.)
Fig. 14.
Gambel's Sparrow is the Pacific Coast variety of our common
White-crowned Sparrow, represented on Plate  XVI., fig. 7,
page, 49. It is found in great abundance from Mexico to the
Arctic Ocean, between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific. Dr.
Suckley says, it makes its nest in low bushes, among the stalks
of lupins and other shrub-like weeds. Dr. Cooper describes its
song as loud, but short and melancholy, heard at intervals during
the whole year, and frequently at night. Its food consists almost
wholly of seeds, sought mostly on the ground.
Texas Night-hawk. (Chordeiles acutipennis, var. texensis.)
Fig. Is.
The Texas Night-hawk was added to our fauna in i853, by Mr.
Lawrence. It is met with in the Valley of the Rio Grande from
Texas on the east, through New Mexico, Arizona, Southern Cali-
fornia, and Cape St. Lucas. During the summer months it is
found in the northern provinces of Mexico, thence southward to
Central America. Dr. Cooper says they become quite numerous
about Fort Mohave by the 17th of April, hunting in companies
after sunset, and hiding during the day on the ground under low
bushes. By the 25th of May they had all paired, but continued
nearly silent, making only a low croaking when approached.
Western Night-hawk, or Bull-bat. (Chordeiles virginianus, var. henryi.)
Fig. x6.
This bird is a Western variety of our common typical species
(represented on Plate LXXII., fig. z6, page i8i). Itwasfirstde-
scribed in i866, by Mr. Cassin, from specimens obtained by Mr.
Henry at Fort Webster, New Mexico. The habits of these birds
are similar.
Yellow-throated Gray Warbler. (Dendroica dominica, var. albilora.)
Fig. z7.
The habits and characteristics of this bird are similar to those of
the Dendroica dominica, represented on Plate V., fig. 7, page 7.
In summer it migrates from the Mississippi region of the United
States to Lake Erie, leaving for the Atlantic, thence to Mexico to
winter.
Vaux's, or Oregon Chimney Swift. (Chotura vauxi.)
Fig. MS
Vaux's Swift was first discovered by Mr. Townsend, on the Co-
lumbia River, breeding in hollow trees, forming a nest in a similar
manner, and laying four pure white eggs. Its habits are similar
to the common Chimney Swift, represented on Plate LXXVI.,
fig. 7, page II8.
Green Black-oapped or Pacific Coast Fly-eatcher. (Myiodioctespusillus,
var. pileolatus.)
Fig. 19.
A Pacific Coast variety of our common species, represented on
Plate XLVII, fig. I, page 63. Dr. Suckley found it a very
abundant species on the coast, where it frequents thickets and
15S7


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