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Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / Birds of North America
(1903)

Plate XCIX. Black-footed albatross. (Diomedea nigripes.),   p. 146


Page 146


ALBATROSS-CORMORANTS-VIREOS.
times several in sight of each other-would be considered surpris-
ing by one not recollecting that conveniences for breeding are in
this country practically limited to such narrow tracts. The nests
are built at varying heights, from the intricacies of heavy shrub-
bery, where a man may reach them from the ground, to the tops
of the tallest trees. They are generally, however, placed thirty
or forty feet high, in some stout crotch, or on a horizontal fork.
They are bulky and ragged looking structures, from the size of
sticks used for the base and outside; the interior is composed of
smaller twigs more compactly arranged. The shape varies with
the requirements of the location, being more or less conical in an
upright crotch, flatter on a fork. The interior hollowing is slight.
An average external diameter may be given as two feet, and depth
half as much."
PLATE XCIX.
Black-footed Albatross. (Diomedea nigripes.)
Fig. I.
This is a very abundant species, found along the Pacific coast.
According to Dr. Brehm, the Albatrosses claim the vast ocean of
the southern hemisphere as their habitat. A few, it is true, have
been occasionally seen even off the coasts of Europe, but such cir-
cumstance can only be regarded as an accidental occurrence. They
seldom or never pass beyond the tropic of Capricorn, at least in
the Atlantic, and even then only as occasional wanderers. They
appear more frequently, however, in the northern regions of the
Pacific ocean; they are also said to make regular visits to Behring's
Straits and the Sea of Ochotsk, and not only casually to show them-
selves upon those unfrequent shores, but to reside in their vicinity
during several months, only retiring beyond the equator as the sea-
son for breeding approaches. In like manner, they are frequently
met with in high Antarctic latitudes-i. e., as we are informed by
sailors and fisherman, up to 50f or 60f south latitude; but whether
these are regular migrations, or merely casual excursions, we are
not as yet informed. We know, however, that they visit all seas
lying between 230 north and 66f south latitude; that when they
come into more northern climes, as into Kamtschatka and Ochotsk,
they are hungry, lank, and half-starved, but that, in a few weeks,
owing to the abundance of food they there meet with, they return
to their breeding-places plump and in good condition. It is said
by some observers, that, in the literal meaning of the words, their
flight extends quite around the globe, being generally, however,
more or less restricted within the limits of a certain zone, from
which they never wander far during the whole course of the year,
and within which they likewise breed.
Brandt's Cormorant. (Graculus fenicillatus.)
Fig. 2.
This bird is found to be a very common species on the Pacific
coast. As all Cormorants are very much alike in their habits, we
refer the reader to page I3 for a detailed account.
Violet Green Cormorant. (Graculas violaceus.)
Fig. 3.
This species is also found on the Pacific coast. Its habits are
very similar to the Cormorant described on page I3.
Florida Cormorant. (Graculus dilophus, var. oridanws.)
Fig. 4
This species is a southern variety of the Double-crested Cormo-
rant. It is a resident on the Floridian and Gulf coast. Its migra-
tions range up the Mississippi valley to Ohio.
PLATE C.
Least Vireo. ( Virio pusillus.)
Fig. z.
Mr. Xantus first discovered this species at Cape St. Lucas,
and Dr. Coues gave it its first description in i866. Dr. Cooper
claims that in its habits it greatly resembles the Warbling Vireo,
page 72 of this work. According to Mr. Ridgway, it is a species
easily recognized, being, in all respects, quite distinct from any
other. The character of its notes, as well as its habits, show it to be
a true Vireo. Its song, though weaker, bears a great resemblance
to that of the White-eyed. The nest found of this species, was
placed about three feet from the ground, in a low bush in a copse
of willows. Like all the nests of these Vireos it was pencile, being
attached to, and suspended from, the twigs of a branch.
Bell's Vireo. ( Vireo belli.)
Fig. 2.
This species is met with from the Missouri river west to the
Rocky Mountains.    Its habits are very similar to that of the
White-eyed Vireo, described on page 7I of this work. Its notes
are somewhat imitative of those of the Blue-bird, differing alto-
gether from those of other Vireos.
Gray Vireo. Arizona Vireo. Gray Greenlet. (Vireo vicixior.)
Fig. 3.
Very little is known of this rare species, which was first discov-
ered by Dr. Coues, near Fort Whipple, Arizona, in 3865, and de-
scribed by him in i866.
Western Warbling Vireo, or Greenlet. Swainson's Warbling Greenlot
(Vireo ggilous, var. Swainsoni.)
Fig. 4.
This species is a western variety of our common little Warbling
Vireo, page 72 of this work. It is met with from the Rocky
Mountains to the Pacific coast. Like its eastern relative, its song,
which is cheerful and varied, is heard throughout the day until late
in autumn. They also build.their nests in the shade-trees in the
cities.
Plumbeous Vireo. Lead-colored Vireo, or Greenlet. ( Viree solarias,
var. plumbeus.)
Fig. 5.
This is the western variety of the species known as the Solitary
Vireo, see page 7I. It was first described by Dr. Coues, who met
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