Studer, Jacob Henry, 1840-1904. / Birds of North America
Plate XXXVIII. The chestnut-sided warbler. (Dendroica pennsylvanica.), p. 52
CHESTNUT-SIDPED AND B3LACK-POLLED WARBLERS. alarmed, it escapes from the nest in great silence and rapidity, running along the ground like a worm, as if afraid to tread too heavily on the leaves. If you stop to examine its nest, it also stops, droops its wings, flutters, and tumbles along, as if hardly able to crawl, looking back now and then to see whether you are taking notice of it. If you slowly follow, it leads you fifty or sixty yards off, in a direct line from its nest, seeming at every ad- vance to be ga ning fresh strength; and when it thinks it has decoyed you to a sufficient distance, it suddenly wheels off and disappears." The Cow-pen Bunting frequently selects this bird to act the part of a foster parent to its young. It deposits its eggs in the nest, and leaves the result to the tender mercy of the Thrush, who gen- erally performs the duties with care. This species is six inches long, and nine inches from tip to tip of wing. Below, pure white, the breast covered with deep-brown pencil-shaped spots; above, rich yellow-olive; the tips of the wings and inner vanes of the quills dusky brown; the three first prima- ries are about equal; from the nostrils a dusky line passes to the hind head; crown brownish orange; legs pale flesh color; bill dusky. PLATE XXXVIII. The Chestnut-sided Warbler. (Dendroica jennsylvanica.) Fig. i, Male. Fig. 2, Female. This is one of our rare and beautiful species that probably winter in tropical America. It generally appears in the Middle and Eastern States early in May, on its way to breed. In Canada and around Hudson's Bay, they may be seen in the spring. Accord- ing to Dr. Coues, "IThey are abundant in woodland in the east- ern part of the United States." According to Wilson: "I It is one of those transient visitors that pass through Pennsylvania in April and May, on their way farther north to breed. During its stay here, which seldom exceeds a week or ten days, it appears actively engaged among the opening buds and young leaves, in search of insects; has no song but a feeble chirp or twitter, and is not nu- merous." According to Nuttall: "1 A few remain, no doubt to rear their young, in secluded mountainous situations in the North- ern States. The note of the male was very similar to that of the Summer Yellow-bird, being only a little louder and less whistling. It resembles 'Vsh, 'Vsh, tsh, 'tshyia, given at about an interval of half a minute, and answered by his mate at some distance, near which, it is probable, there was a nest. He appeared to be no way suspicious of our approach. His restlessness was subdued, and he quietly sat near the same low bushes, amusing himself and his consort for an hour at a time, with the display of his lively and simple ditty." The length of this species is about five inches, and about eight inches broad; the bill is black; the iris dark hazel; the front line over the eye and ear-feathers pure white; the crown is a brilliant yellow; a triangular patch of black beneath the eye and connected with the lores; the hind head and back are streaked with gray, an obscure black, and a dull yellow; feathers of the back and rump black, edged with greenish-yellow. The wings are dusky, the primaries edged with whitish; the first and second row of coverts broadly tipped with pale yellow; the secondaries edged with greenish-yellow. The tail is forked, dusky exteriorly, edged with ash or with greenish-gray. Sides, from the back beneath the eye to the thighs, furnished with a broad stripe of bright chestnut; the rest of the parts below, pure white. The legs and feet are of a light-ash color. The Black-polled Warbler. (Dendroica striata.) Fig. 3. This snecies is one of those silent. shv, and solitarv hirds that mostly seek the deep retreats of the forest, and are not very gen- erally known to the public. It is said when the Black-polls appear in force, the collecting season is about over. Wilson says: " This bird may be considered as occupying an intermediate station be- tween the Fly-catchers and the Warblers, having the manners of the former, and the bill, partially, of the latter. The nice grada- tions by which nature passes from one species to another, even in this department of the great chain of beings, will forever baffle all the artificial rules and systems of man. And this truth every fresh discovery must impress more forcibly on the mind of the observing naturalist." This species is an active insect-hunter, and keeps much toward the tops of the highest trees, where it darts about with great activ- ity, and hangs from the twigs with fluttering wings. Audubon sayss: "' It enters Louisiana as early as the middle of February. At this time it is seen gleaning food among the taller branches of the willows, maples, and other trees that overhang the rivers and lakes. Its migrations eastward follow the advance of the season, and I have not been able to comprehend why it is never seen in the maritime parts of South Carolina, while it is abundantly found in the State of New Jersey close to the sea-shore. There you would think that it had changed its habits; for, instead of skipping among the taller branches of trees, it is seen moving along the trunks and large limbs, almost in the manner of a Certhia, search- ing the chinks of the bark for larvae and pupae. They are met with in groups of ten, twelve, or more, in the end of April, but after that period few are to be seen. In Massachusetts,theybegin to appear nearly a month later, the intervening time being no doubt spent on their passage through New York and Connecticut. I found them, at the end of May, in the eastern part of Maine, and met with them wherever we landed on our voyage to Labrador, where they arrive from the ist to the ioth of June, throwing them- selves into every valley covered by those thickets, which they prefer for their breeding places. It also breeds abundantly in New- foundland. " In these countries, it has almost become a Fly-catcher. You see it darting in all directions after insects, chasing them on wing, and not unfrequently snapping, so as to emit the clicking sound characteristic of the true Fly-catcher. Its activity is pleasing, but its notes have no title to be called a song. They are shrill, and resemble the noise made by striking two small pebbles together, more than any other sound that I know. They may be in some degree imitated by pronouncing the syllable sche, sche, sche, sche, so as progressively to increase the emphasis." According to Maynard-" In April, when the great Magnolia is in full bloom, the Black-polled Warblers may be found in Flor- ida. Later, in May, when all the apple orchards of New England are snowy with blossoms, the same birds appear and linger a time, then depart for the north, arriving in the British Provinces and Labrador when nature has assumed her most festive garb." The Black-poll Warbler is a gentle bird, by no means afraid of man, although it pursues some of its smaller enemies with consid- erable courage. The sight of a Canadian Jay excites it greatly, as that marauder often sucks its eggs or swallows its young. This species is five and one-half inches long, and eight and a half inches broad. Whole crown pure black, upper parts streaked with black and grayish-white; cheeks white; below the eye, from the lower mandible, runs a streak of small black spots-the rest of the lower parts white; primaries black, with greenish-yellow at the end, the first and second coverts broadly tipped with white; tail black, edged with ash; vent white; upper mandible black; lower mandible, legs, and feet flesh-color; iris hazel.
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