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The atlas of nature: being a graphic display of the most interesting subjects in the three kingdoms of nature, for study and reference
([1823])

[Plate 21]: Philosophy of mountains,   p. [Plate 21-23]


Page [Plate 21-23]

PHILOSOPHY OF MOUNTAINS.
HEIGHTS
Measured in different Parts
of the Globe.    I
Himaylayas.
Elevation of small fleecy
Clouds.
Top of Chimborazo, 21,921
feet.
Top of Cayamba,
Top of Antisana,
Top of Cotopaxi,
Top of Mount St. Elia, 18,541
ft.
Top of Popocatepetel, 18,131
ft.
Top of OrizazaPeak, 17,856 ft.
Volcano of   Tungurahua,
16,718 ft,
Top of Rucu Sinchincha,
16,423 ft,
Mount Blanc, 16,118 ft.     f
Mount Rosa, 15,432 ft.
Finsterahorn, 14,395 ft.
Petrified shells at Huancave-
lien, 14,192 ft.
Farm inhabited by Antisana,
13,520 ft.
Gross Glokner (in Tyrol)
12,871 ft.
City of Micuipampa, 11,752ft
Peakof Teneriffe,1,424 ft.I
Mount Perdu, il,367 ft.
Etna, 10,936 ft.
Chief Rock of Marbore,
10,448 ft.
Watsnoon, 9,636 ft.
Canigou, 9,113ft.
St. Gothard, top of Pettine,
8,920 ft.
Inferiorlimitof snows, in lat.
450, atthe height of 8,190
ft.
City of Mexico, 7,424 ft.
Bed of gem salt at St. Mau-
rice, in Savoy, 7,166 ft.
Passage of Monot Cenis,
6,766 ft.
Mount D'Or, 6,176ft.
City of Popayan, 5,750ft.   I
Puy de Dome, 4,834 ft.     I
Vesuvius,in 1793, 3,919 ft. I
--          1805, 3,551 ft.
Broken, in the Hartz, 3,4731
ft.
Volcano, of Hecla, 3,296 ft.
CULTURE OF
SOIL
on
THE ANDES.
No cultivation.
Pasturage for La-
mas, sheep, oxen,
and goats.
Potatoes, olluco,
tropwolum, escu-
lenium; no wheat,
beyond 10827feet.
Barley.
Wheats of Eu-
rope,   Triticum,
Hordeum Avena,
oats ; no maize,
potatoes, cotton; a
few heads of sugar
cane. Apples.
Coffeecottonso-
gar cane, less abun-
dant. Above .5,694
feet. With great
difficulty fruits ma-
tuIe. Peruvian ery-
throxcylum, wheat.
Sugar, indigo,co-
coa, coffee, cotton,
naize,atropha, Ba-
nanea, vines, milky
achras.
300801-             I
Decrease
weight in-
dicated by
the oscilla-
tion of a
pendulum
in a
vacuum.
99889638
99905404
9821170--
999369361--
999527021--1
999842341
100000001
4)4)
4).O
.0
u ~'
ut.)
o ,..
7.3.0
440
A
-u
ofi,~
US)
B
- a,0
fi.a 4)
u4)~
54 1
99968468 1--
220
189
86 1
.0
Scale
of
Yards
Hei ht
of
Barome-
ter.
11'884
12691
13-571
14*488
1545
16-436
17-518
18*626
19'831
21-089
22354
23'688
2591
26587
2815
11  - I           1 11 -  I  - I  . I I.
Temperature in
Maximum    and
Minimum, of the
Centigrade
Thermometer.
Regions too little
frequented to know
the mean tempera-
ure, which never.
theless appears too
be below zero. Atn
18,200 ft. the ther-t
mometer     some-h
times at 1q.     t
From 66 meanr
temperature,   tor
39. Snow falls toC
14,700 ft.
From 32 to 685.
Mean temperature
488. Mach bail-
sometimes bynight.I
From 34 to745.I
Mean temp. 66'
Much hail, fogs
frequent to a small
height.
From 54 to 86-
Mean temp. 70
Hail rather rare
atmosphere   often
foggy.
From 6? to 101.
Mean temp. 7705
Hail.   The hour.
glass often at 52.
Silver Mine in Hungary.
Grotto del Cane.
A
Earthqualez in Caiabria.
Ie Islandsn thte Ans-arctcJOean,
195
186
176
168
157
147
137
125
The water of the
sea at the surface
near the Equator,
sut of the current
at  8215, but at
'he depthof 130 ft.
the sea is at the
temp. of 46. The
tem. of the interior
of the earth at the
Equator is 7V.0
6500
5000
4500
500
3000
2500 I 1121
97
87'
1000
Sea.I
Chemical Com-
position of the
Atmospheric
Air.
The quantityoft
oxygen in the at.
mosphere about
the same in these
high regions as in
the plains.
But the proxi.f
mity of volcanoesd
may sometimesN
on thehigh tops
of theAndels, mo- a
dify the composi.I
tion of the air.
The quantityoo
hydrogen   con-
tained in the at-
mospheric air isI
less than  twoI
thousandthparts.
Nor    is there
foundmoreof hy-
drogen at 23,600
ft. than at the le-
eel of the sea.
The atmosphe.
ric air contains
0-21    oxygen
0787  hydrogen
and about oo
of carbonic acid
The maximumof
these variations
. very seldom ex-
- ceed one thou-
sandth part of
oxygen.
Inferior limit
of the
Perpetual Snow,
under
different Latitudes.
The air drawn
from snow water
contained 0*287 of
oxygen.
Perpetual snow
about the Equator,
froim the 3 of N.
&S.lat.at 16,Ssoft.
without variations
of 50 ft. Perpeto-
al snow at 20 N.
lat. at 13,500 ft. but
it descends in win-
ter to 12,000 ft.
Perpetual snow
below 35 I.. lat.
at 11,500 ft.
Perpetual snow
below 408 lat. at
10,500 ft.
Perpetual snow
- below 2v lat, at
8000 ft.; on the
t Pyrennees, at 7500!
ft.; in Switzerland.
at 9000 ft.; upon
the separate cones
at 8600 it.  But it
atthetopsofmoun-
tains beyond 10,500
ft., few phenomena
- constant in the va-
riable zone.
Below the Equa
tor, it is seen to
. snow at 13,500ft.
,f
At Mexico,under
: the 19- lat., it fall
* at 6500 ft.
Perpetual snowun
der the 75 N. lat.
T-
Inten-
SCALE                                                    sit of
of                  GEOLOGICAL VIEWS.                  Light
in
ANIMALS.                                                     the
Air.
The nature of rocks appearsin general, inde-
pendent of differencesoflatitudeand height. But
in considering for a small part of the globe, the
order of superposition of rocks, one discovers
that in each region the inclination and direction
of their beds, has been determined by a system
of particular forces. It is known that there exist
certain local laws, according to which are
-       -_    -   raised the different formations under the level of 05164
The condor of the the sea.
Andes, some flies The equatorial regions present at once Ridges
and sphinx flut- the most elevated, and Plains the most extend-
tering in the air, ed, on the globe from 0- to 1-4.5. Their depres-
perhaps raised into sion towards the poles is not, however, very
this region by the considerable, for, under the 19. the 450, and
ascending currents. the 60 of N. latitude, ridges are foundat 16,500
-                 feet and 12,500 feet of elevation.           0-9047
Numerous flocks The equatorial plains, on the contrary, that
of Alpacea and Gu- are between the eastern point of the Andes and
anacha sheep,     the coasts of Brazil, about700 leagues in length,
are but from 250 to 700 feet above the level of
Somel ears, con- the ocean.
dor, f    s.        All the formations scattered over the rest of
Many fishes in the globe, are found re-united under the Equator.
the lakes.        Their relative age, inanifested by their order of
superposition, is in general the same as those
- under the temperate zones.                  o-92
Laats run wild   The granite, which serves for the basis of the
on the western de- gneiss, sienite, micaceous schist, and primitive
clivity  of Chin- schist; the secondary formations, two of free-
borazo; little bears stone, two of gypsum, and three of limestone
with white faces, rocks-present striking examples ofthe identity
great stags, the lit. of structure which reigns in parts the mostsepa.
te lion, some hum. rated on the globe. The problematic formation
toing birds, many of basalt, atnydalite, amphibolite rocks, and of
fleas,            porphyry, on a base of obsidien and pearl-stone,
is found loose on the high tufts of the Andes, 08787
almost the same as upon thehighest chaits
Pole-cats,      of Europe.
, tigers,  Amidst the geological phenomena peculiar to
large stags, pala- the Equatorial regions o the New Continent,it
of du   abundsce is requisite to mention, above all, the thickness
fowl, p   n  ice of the beds, and great height at which are disco-
pedle htno  icevered the later formations of granite.  In Eu
rope, the granite is not covered by other rocks
f                  from  11,000 to 15,500 feet; but on the Andes
- t if s not seen below 11,500 feet.             The inostele- 0-8640
0 Little stags, tapir, vated points on the globe are of porphyry, with
hogs,    panthers, amphibolite, destitute of quartz.
large monkeys, tro  'T he formations of freestone are seen on the
pical birds, snakes, AndesatHuancavelica, at 15,000 feet. Pit-coal is
no crocodiles, plen. discovered at H uanuco,atl4,000feet high. The
- ty of gnats.     plains of Bagota, at 9500 and 10,000 feet, are co-
vered with freestone,secondary limestone, gyp-
-  -  -  sun, and salt. Petrified shells are found on the 0-8478
Monbeys, ounces, Andes, at 14,000 feet, but in Europe, not above
Sjaggors, blk.tigers, 1,750 feet.
lions, cavey, slotas, The soil of the kingdom of Quito contains, at
swarms    of ants, time height of 9000 feet, enormous bones of ele-
stags, armadillos, phants,of a species not now existing.
crax, boas, croco-  The freestone of Cuenca, at 5500 feet, is very
diles, eleter, mus- thick; a formation of quartzlieswest of Caxa-
quitoes, bats.     macra at 10,000 feet.
The cordilleras of the Andes present above o-8309
fifty burning volcanoes, which are distant
from the sea from 120 to 150 miles and are
Within the inte. most elevated and powerful ; by thie sides, no
rior of the globe, vomitedlavaflows, but pumnice-stone,obsidium,
are new species of porphyry, and basalt, scoria; aid above all, the
dermestes,  which water on this burnt earth, withinwhichis often 08123
tive on the subter. enveloped a fish, (the pimselodas cyclopum).  -
raneous plants.
mu


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