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Wilson, Alexander, 1766-1813. / American ornithology; or The natural history of the birds of the United States
(1828)

Order III. Passeres. Passerine. Genus 31. Sturnus. Starling. Species. S. predatorius. Red-winged starling,   pp. [unnumbered]-93



    ORDER III. PASSERES. PASSERINE.
           GENUS S3. STURNUS. STARLING
           SPECIES.      S. PREDtITORIUS.
              RED-WINGED STARLING.
      [Plate XXX.-Fig. 1, Male.-Fig. 2, Female.]
Oriolus phlwniceus, LINN. Syst. 1 61.-lRed-winged Oriole, .Irct.
  Zool. 255, NJo. 140.-lcterus pteropheenicieus, BRISS. u, 97.--
  Le Commandeur, BUFF. II, 214. Pl. Eni. 402.-LATHT. I, 428.-
  dcolchichi, FERNAND. JV'ov. Hisp. p. 14. Red-winged Starling,
  CATESB.P. 13.-PEALE'S Aiuseum, No. 1466, 1467.
  THIs notorious and celebrated corn-thief, the long reputed
plunderer and pest of our honest and laborious farmers, now
presents himself before us, with his copartner in iniquity,* to
receive the character due for their very active and distinguished
services. In investigating the nature of these, I shall endeav-
our to render strict historical justice to this noted pair; adhering
to the honest injunctions of the poet,
                      ",Nothing extenuate,
                 "Nor set down aught in malice."
Let the reader devest himself equally of prejudice, and we
shall be at no loss to ascertain accurately their true character.
  The Red-winged Starlings, though generally migratory in the
states north of Maryland, are found during winter in immense
flocks, sometimes associated with the Purple Grakles, and
often by themselves, along the whole lower parts of Virginia,
both Carolinas, Georgia and Louisiana, particulary near the sea-
coast, and in the vicinity of large rice and corn fields. In the
* Wilson here alludes to the Pileated Woodpecker, which in the original
edition precedes the Red-winged Starling.


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