Landau, Paul Stuart, 1962- (ed.) / The power of doubt: essays in honor of David Henige
Eldredge, Elizabeth A.
Shaka's military expeditions: survival and mortality from Shaka's impis, pp. 209- PDF (13.0 MB)
ELIZABETH A. ELDREDGE After the defeat and death of Pakatwayo, Shaka sent troops south of the Thukela to attack the AbaQwabe living south of the river, and the AmaCele chief Magaye there volun- tarily became a tributary subordinate ally to Shaka by giving him his allegiance and offering no resistance to the AmaZulu extension of authority into the region of modern Natal.50 Following Dingiwayo's death and the incorporation of the AmaMthethwa, Shaka sent his cousin Makedama to attack the AmaThuli chiefdom of Ntaba ka Nyebu and other chief- doms in the Natal region including the AmaCele of Mande ka Dibandhlela. Under Shaka's orders Makedama's troops, aided by the AmaCele chief Magaye who had remained loyal to Shaka, attacked the AmaThuli, other AmaCele, and various other chiefdoms."' In various attacks, the chiefs of the region of Natal were defeated quickly, and in cases where they did not khonza Shaka, they were put to death. Before Tshaka fought with the Ndwandwe he entered Natal and attacked Mande ka Dibandhlela of the Cele people and Duze ka Mnengwa of the Makanya people, killing each the same night. He at the same time killed Sokoti ka Mdindi of the Amanganga people, Nduna ka Mbedu ka Gwayi ka Nyapase of the emaSomeni peo- ple, Mtimkulu ka Dibandhlela of the Mapumulo people, and Nzala ka Mangqatshu of the emaNdhlovini people who built at Esidumbini, at the Ivutwaneni stream which enters the Nsuze which enters the Mvoti.s2 After these disruptive raids Shaka sent a large contingent of the Iziyendane (AmaHlubi) regiment accompanied by some AmaMthethwa regiments to settle in the region of modern Natal and from their new villages there they attacked and raided even further to the south.53 The AmaHlubi Iziyendane regiment played a destructive role in the region. After this Tshaka collected together forces of these various tribes and attacked fur- ther south in Natal with them. But he first of all made a colony of Natal by sending the Iziyendane, as well as some Mtetwa people, to live in the neighbourhood of the Mvoti. The Iziyendane were of the amaHlubi tribe. The Hlubis had previously run away from Matiwana (Zwide) [sic] and konza'd the Zulus. The Zulus did not fight with the Hlubis.14 This use of the term "colony" in this oral tradition with reference to Shaka's establish- ment of subordinate allies in Natal was explicit and was meant to indicate a resettlement that displaced the existing population, who remained subject to predatory raids if they stayed in the area. As a result, most took flight to resettle among the AmaMpondo. Because the troops of the Iziyendane, AmaMthethwa, AmaNganga, and AmaPumalo were deployed by Shaka to attack and subordinate the small chiefdoms of modern Natal they were perceived to be AmaZulu by the victims of their raids in the south, in spite of the distinct identities they retained as military units.55 Maziyana explained the perspective of the people of these displaced chiefdoms, a perspective that they conveyed to the AmaMpondo in turn: The Iziyendane, Mtetwa, amaNganga, amaPumulo etc. were those who attacked the tribes south. They adopted a Zulu chant, and if any stranger should hear them chanting thus he would dash off and jump into a swamp or other hiding place. 218
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